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in honor of 


1866 - 1928 

Professor of History 

Lifelong Benefactor and 

First Director of This Library 



London : 

Srorriiwoooi and Shaw, 







1844, 1845, and 1846. 
















My dear Henry, 

The greatest pleasure I have in publishing 
rhy Journal is the dedicating it to you. 

You should have been with me, that we might 
have explored together many a classic spot and 
scene of natural beauty : but, as that might not be, 
accept at least these few lines, in memory of happy 
days of old, when we loitered together by lake and 
stream, through dingle and bushy dell ; and as a 
pledge of affection and the heart's best wishes 

From your loving Brother, 


Clifton, March, 1847. 

















9. 61 


near Siena 





















Capri - 











































I. View op Etna - (Frontispiece.) 

II. Palace " dei Diavoli" - To face page 52 

III. Stone of Lacco ----- 174 

IV. Temple of Seoesta - 198 

V. Catania - - - - - - 214 

VI. Diontmus's Ear ----- 234 

VII. Tomb of Archimedes - - - - 236 





May 17. 1844. 
Turin is a bright and cheerful city : it has been 
called formal ; but no one would think it so while 
gazing down a long street studded with party- 
coloured shops and disclosing an Alp in the back- 
ground. Here arc two palaces, old and new : the 
former now holds out the attraction of a picture- 
gallery, and contains perhaps a score of first-rate 
paintings. We were best pleased with a " Saul at 
Tarsus," by Ribera, though by no means the most 
costly picture here. 

The modern palace has a spacious front in the 



piazza ; at one angle of it rises the cathedral, whose 
dome is partly sacrificed to a group of inferior 
buildings. We reached the grand stairhead a few 
minutes before the king and queen passed out on 
their way to vespers, escorted by a troop of ladies, 
officers, and pages in waiting. Their majesties ap- 
peared to be good-natured souls, though the quick 
marching step indicated pretty plainly that nobody 
had dined. Following the royal cortege, we found 
the interior of the cathedral brilliantly illuminated. 
It has no lack of adornments, but, for the mother- 
church in a capital city, I thought there seemed a 
lack of room. 

Next to the Alps, the noblest feature here is 
" wandering Po," whose acquaintance we have made 
for the first time. I shall, however, leave him to 
his mazes now, and retrace our own route from 
Paris hither. 

Coming by Fontainebleau, Saulieu, Ch&lons and 
the Savoy, it is a week's journey without hurrying. 
The drive through Burgundy presented a succession 
of budding vineyards, with here and there an old 
ruined keep. In Sens we halted half an hour to 
look at its ancient cathedral: here among other 
rarities we were shown, as specially interesting to 


English folk, a cope and chasuble worn by that 
meek churchman Thomas a Becket. 

Ch&lons sur Saone is a fine town, with a fine inn. 

In Lyons we saw a Trades-Union in procession, 
threading a narrow street and chanting the Marseil- 
laise ; but the demonstration seemed to lack fervour, 
and was perhaps merely an effort to disperse their 
ennui. What a dingy broken-backed city is Lyons ! 
yet here they make the beautiful silks for our 
dames' bravery. Every thing bright or precious 
comes out of some pit of misery, some mine of 

A few miles on this side of the frontier we slept 
at les EclteUes ; once a wretched halting-place, but 
now the inn is endurable. It was pitch-dark when 
we got in, but next morning our eyes opened on a 
pretty panorama, the more striking from being 
limited in extent. A green glen with gentle emi- 
nences fills the foreground ; farther back are preci- 
pices of the bare rock sprinkled with dark firs : the 
skyline is formed by ridges of the mountain white 
with snow. On one steep summit is perched the 
mother convent of the Chartreuse. A fine gallery 
cut through the rock leads out of the Echelles valley. 
On the 15th we turned the last vale of the Savoy 

11 2 


on this route. From the bed of its torrent rose a 
massive pinnacled fortress, whose name I forget: 
it is the key of the whole pass, and is unassailably 
strong. At present its ramparts and artillery may 
serve to overawe the saucy goats. Leaving the 
hamlet of Lanz le Bourg y the sloping ascent of Mont 
Cenis lay before us : I walked up the ten miles to 
its summit, and our Scotch maid, with the indepen- 
dence natural to her race, did the same for half way. 
Every turn and wind of the road varied the pros- 
pect below, and I was pleased with watching the 
gradual changes in the botanical aspect of the hill. 
We had left violets and a clustering flora iu the 
valley : these soon dwindled to bluebells and cro- 
cuses, and nothing remained at last save a few 
lichens. The temperature of this Alp was delicious 
after the scorching heat of the glen. On its sum- 
mit we found a good plain inn, with double windows, 
large wood fires, and a freezing lake in front. 
The latter furnished some capital yellow trouts for 
supper, and we slept soundly amid snow-hills and 
blocks of ice. 

Next morning, at break of day, came the descent, 
not a very pleasant operation. For eight miles the 
road twisted and dropped like the coils of a snake 


rampant; snow-drifts choked the ditches, a thick 
mist buried us alive. One comfort is, ) r ou cannot 
stop to think about it : one wheel is locked in the 
" sabot," the postboy's whip plays like a cracker, 
your horses mean to lunch this time in Italy. So 
down you plunge, right, left, round that corner ; 
"mind the granite post;" bless me ! what a jump we 
got then ! here we are at the bottom ; little Nap's 
road is a splendid affair after all. 

Then came Susa, a pretty town of Piedmont : 
and then a level drive of twenty miles to Turin. 
Rocks and precipices had melted away as though 
they had formed a part of the mist, and our eyes 
were regaled with a champaign country, planted 
out in orchards or vineyards, and intersected by 
long lines of mulberry trees. The road swept be- 
tween hedges of the white acacia now in bloom, 
and recalled a pretty scene in Surrey on a smaller 
scale. At Asti we tasted a delicious wine of the 
country, and apples better than I ever ate any 

. . • " Sunt nobis mitia poma.*' 

n 3 



May 20. 

In a few hours we shall leave this city after a too 
brief stay. It is provoking, but I have long wished 
to sec what Florence is like in the month of May, 
and we have no time to lose. The road from Turin 
hither introduced us to the battle-field of Marengo^ 
and the fortified town of Alessandria. 

The plain where Dessaix's arrival made Napoleon 
master of Italy is now given up to the culture of 
the Mulberry, every leaf of which is precious to the 
silk-factories in the neighbourhood, for silkworms 
must eat as well as great people. I saw nothing 
in the features of the spot which arrests attention 
like the field of Waterloo. 

Alessandria is entered by covered bridges, and 
under the teeth of a heavy portcullis: it has in 
addition all the amiable devices of flanking towers, 
loopholcd passages, and ramparts bristling with 
cannon. A strong place, truly. It might however 
be starved out ; for I saw no provision within the 
citadel for growing a crop, a resource indispensable 
to all besieged places. 


A stage or two over Apennine slopes shaggy 
with the Spanish chestnut brought us down upon 
the coast of the Mediterranean. Approaching 
Genoa the heights were thronged with villas where 
every terrace displayed a phalanx of roses. The 
site of this city is superb : westward, the eye follows, 
for a score or two of miles, the curve of the Bay, 
distant mountains dipping down upon it: eastward, 
Genoa, with her bold promontory and quay, dome 
and sundry towers, stands out like rock-work on 
the bright water. Behind the town are consider- 
able heights, crowned by the fortress which Mas- 
sena held so stoutly, when they ate 1 believe their 
last horse. 

We have visited the doge's palace, the Serra, 
the duomo, and a beautiful church. In their pub- 
lic buildings black and white occur alternately in 
horizontal layers : the effect of this on a tower a 
hundred and fifty feet high is pitiable ; all unity, all 
impression of the sublime, is done away by these 
ledger lines. You are left with a feeling of won- 
derment at the immeasurable masses of marble, 
coupled with a regret that the republic should have 
had such a gigantic penchant for the pattern of a 
sailor's shirt. 

it 4 


The palace halls are enormous, whitewashed, and 
empty. In the duomo stands John Baptist's 
shrine, behind which no woman is ever permitted 
to go : for an obvious reason, certainly ; whether a 
valid one may be doubted. The church "della 
Consolazione " has an absolute gallery of paintings 
on plafond and wainscot: this glare looks ill in a 
consecrated building. 

After this it was a relief to siroll through the 
villa of the Marchese di Negri, where a charming 
view is obtained from one of the slopes. The 
owner has assembled some rare exotics, and a pro- 
fusion of the usual ones. We noted the Cauot- 
chouc, Pepper- tree, Coffee-bush, and Date; and, 
amidst a wilderness of flowers, found the Scented 
Camelia. There were some splendid yellow roses, 
and orange and citron trees, at once in flower and 
fruit ; the Magnolia, too, is odoriferous here. The 
effect under a southern sun was like that of a jar 
of pot-pourri first opened. 

No villa bouquet, however, will wean my fancy 
from an old description in Bacon of the requisites 
for an English flower-garden and shrubbery ; 
albeit I admit the yellow rose to be peerless. 

But I hear the music of our courier's boots, 


announcing that those jackals " i cavalli," in 
their old rope harness, are ready for us. So, a 
truce to horticultural remarks, and adieu to 
Doria's city. 


May 24. 
We arrived here yester-evening, having come 
through the finest country we have yet seen. 
Among many striking spots, no one who has viewed 
it at morning prime will forget Spezia, a little 
fishing-hamlet crowding round a comer of a bay of 
the Mediterranean. The road dips, at first, as if it 
meant to bisect the village, then turns at a sharp 
angle, and climbs a sandstone cliff, whose slope 
descends on the very eaves of the houses. On this 
spot I was first seized with a sense of Italian 
scenery. We were skirting banks tufted with the 
wild fig and olive; here and there hung a spiky 
aloe on the face of the rock, its huge cup-like 
recesses filled with liquid crystal; the early dew 
still lay heavy on the uplands, but behind these a 
forest of mountain tops rase fresh and clear in the 


tawny air. I never saw such heavenly shades of 
blue; on the Apennines it varied from indigo to 
lilac, glowed like a sapphire in the vault above, 
and deepened to the tint of lapis lazuli in the silent 
gulf below. A mile further, and the scene had 
changed to expanded downs, with a wide sea- 

Somewhere hereabouts, we became aware of the 
facility with which Italians beg under all circum- 
stances. 1 had just drawn J.'s attention to a 
happy group assembled round a settle under a 
spreading plane ; a girl was twirling the distaff, an 
old woman arranging the repast. " ! fortunati 
nimiiim " rose to my lips. As we turned a bow- 
ering hedge, they were hid for a few seconds ; but 
they had caught a glimpse of the green carriage. 
Emerging from our cover, I beheld, with a feeling 
of real sorrow, the family coming " in formfi, pau- 
perum ; " the smiling lively girl had made herself 
an object, another behind was dragging forward 
the mother to bring her up in time. All were im- 
portunate, with vehement gestures, in demanding 
" Caritk, per Tamor di Dio ! " The old lady looked 
absolutely wrathful at our proposing to escape. 

As we drew near the city of the Arno, the 


approaches bloomed with all the luxury of beauty : 
every feature told that art had guided labour, and 
that both had profited by a southern clime. 

The forms of the Apennine now became softer, 
hedgerows and meadows multiplied, an admirable 
husbandry peeped forth, and wc had glimpses of 
things not wholly unlike an English farm-house. 

For some stages past I had occasionally noted 
a splendid insect, but now the road was a live mu- 
seum: lizards coated with emerald flirted from 
under banks and stones, stag-beetles strayed 
across the pathway, busy sphynxes whizzed by the 
carriage-blinds. All was in keeping; there were 
villas glittering on every terrace, frescoes in every 
porch, the majestic Italian pine, and the musical 
Italian face. The men whom we met carried the 
hoe or the pruning-hook ; the " contadine " spun at 
their cottage-doors, or loitered up and down in the 
large flapping straw-hat which is so becoming to 
plump features. 

Entering the city by a fine level road, wc drove to 
our hotel facing a pretty bridge ; called for a dish 
of tea, unpacked a travelling-bag, fell in love with 
the Arno, and dropped asleep. 

Here is a bright May-day, and we must be stirring 


to choose an appartamento among the Grand Duke's 

The waters of the Arno, where not turbid, 
appear to me seagreen : it is a pretty river, bor- 
dered on either side with glittering houses, and 
spanned by three stone bridges, two of which are 
elegant and one picturesque. 

Month of July. 

No city I was ever in can compete with this " Fio- 
renza" in beauty: it has the "vultus nimiiim lu- 
bricus aspici " of Horace's nymph. Details which 
are so fine that they almost baffle detection, charm 
you in the ensemble at every step. Where are 
there spires so delicate as these, or turrets and 
belfries so picturesque? In vain should I seek 
to describe the effect of the chimes : it is evening 
now and they are ringing for vespers on the other 
side the river; those bells are close at hand, but 
there is nothing harsh in their music, for the liquid 
clement as it glides between catches the tones on 
its bosom, and modulates them to the softness of 
a lady's lute. Dante had often heard this melody, 
and we owe to his native recollections of it some 
of the most exquisite stanzas he ever penned. The 


" Squilla di lontano che paja il giorno pianger chc 
si muore," was born on the banks of Arno. 

Every public building here is a gem. The Badia 
steeple is polygonal; that of St. Maria Novella, 
pointed quadrangular; both are exquisite. What 
a fine ochre- tinted mass is the church of Sta. Croce. 
Then there is the oval duomo with its belfry of 
white marble, Giotto's world-renowned tower, 
palaces a TEtrusque, and the Lung' Arno prome- 
nade. I admire those wide shelving pavements; 
they are laid down in huge many-sided blocks like 
the old Roman roads. The jewellers' bazaars give 
an almost Oriental cast to the pretty Ponte Vecchio: 
Gray asks, 

" What female heart can gold despise ? 
What cat's averse to fish ?" 

Both should be bewitched here, what with the arti- 
zan's tray on one side, and the little hooped net 
alternately lowered and drawn up again on the 

Paris is a fine city, with much to explore, but 
its environs are flat. Florence, teeming with marble 
beauty, lies in the midst of an undulating garden. 

Here is a sketch taken from the Cascine: — 


" What is yon the stronger sees 
Peeping through the silken trees, 
Glittering bands of red and white, 
Peaks and masses, rainbow dight ? 
Stranger, 'tis a city rare, 
Tuscan Florence, passing fair. 

" What is yon with melting hue. 
Now 'tis lilac, now 'tis blue ; 
Sharp the crest its outline heaves, 
Just behind the cottage eaves ? 
Stranger, 'tis the mountain's line, 
'Tis our purple Apennine. 

" What is yon comes dipping, dancing, 
Sparkling, flashing, sweeping, glancing, 
Whispering through the osier-bush, 
Eddying round the tufted rush ? 
Stranger, 'tis the Tuscan's pride, 
'Tis dear Arno's silver tide !" 

These " cascine," translate if you like " farm- 
dairy," are the Champs Elys£es of the Florentines ; 
and the Boboli gardens are their Versailles. The 
cascine has real English-looking meadows, an 
enclosed parkish lawn, and a grove of luxuriant 
trees, with shrubbery, and a raised causeway along 
the Arno, to say nothing of that dear delight, the 
open gravelled circus for carriages, where the beau 


mondc of Florence assemble at the bidding of the 
evening star, and halt their horses for a chat during 
the intervals of the drive. The Boboli has- arbours 
and colonnades of the Ilex, grottoes, fountains, and 
some groups in statuary. 

The oxen in these parts are all dove-coloured, 
which I am told is the case throughout Tuscany : 
my informant added, that if any other colours are 
imported the animals speedily lose their " fores- 
ti&rc" tint, and acquire this; an edifying trait, 
showing the obligation of wearing a uniform when 
you go to court thus recognised among oxen ! 

We have climbed the crag to Fiesoldj not to view 
the moon's spotty globe, but to breathe the freshest 
air under the dog-star, and to look at a bit of the 
old Etruscan wall. Seen from the convent's parapet 
edge, Florence resembled a tray of white porcelain, 
and the windings of Arno's silver thread could be 
followed nearly to Pisa. This Fiesold was the an- 
cient capital ; the scene which it surveyed in former 
days was one widely different from the present 
coup-d'oeil ; the richly cultivated plain was then a 
marsh, and tho actual site of Florence a forest full 
of wild boars ; the spot is still marked in a small 
piazza, where a former grand duke nearly fell a 


victim to one of these doughty pigs in the chase : 
here the citizens now draw the finest water in the 
city from the jaws of a brazen boar. The hill-road 
between Florence and the crag's top enjoys a sin- 
gular heraldic privilege, that of making peers. 
When this tidy job was in hand, money was short, 
and the community of Fiesol6 moved sundry indi- 
viduals to let imprisoned angels loose, by a patent 
of family honours awarded in guerdon. I believe 
the old town still possesses this royal prerogative, 
but I have heard of no other instance of its being 
exercised. The road, as thus achieved, is a good 
one, and the title of "Fiesolc barons," though 
meant for a nickname, indicates a true patent, and 
belongs to some now living. 

What would the stately Etruscan Lucumo say 
to this ? the king-descended chieftain, who deemed 
it condescension, if not degradation, to intermarry 
with the nobility of Greece and Rome ! The 
Lucumones however are gone : but other folks, 
"we little men," remain, and the above embodies a 
hint for workhouse overseers at home. Let them 
take juster views of the claims of our fellow- 
creatures who in merry England break stones for 
eight hours per diem on the highway. These hired 


hands are not likely to bo created barons, but at 
least we should not stint wages, nor grudge kindly 
treatment to God's image. Is not the " labouring 
man" the truest representative of him who was 
driven forth from the pure garden to eat bread in 
the sweat of his brow? Yes, he is; truer and 
nearer than the crowned monarch or the pensioned 
legislator. Look on him where he sits amidst the 
dust and heat : the hammer is in his hand and the 
wire mask on his face, and the substance of the 
curse is woven in his memory with scenes of " Big 
Union " and " New Poor-Law." God grant our 
hearts prove not harder than the granite which his 
weary arms have broken ! 

Statues and pictures arc things rather to sec than 
to write about. Still one likes to note first impres- 
sions. This fair and frail Florence teems with 
objects of the " belle arti " in piazzas and galleries. 
Soberly speaking, there is enough here well nigh to 
bewilder a set of plain English brains. 

The Grand Duke throws open the Pitti collection 
as liberally as an Irishman hands you the " 'taties ; " 
the Uffizj halls are seldom shut but on fast-days, — a 
tender consideration in this, for what makes one so 
hungry as looking at pictures? The Academia, 



too, is as free as a bazaar ; and here you may watch 
the rising generation at their studies. It is a pretty 
enough institution ; but I can't say I wish to see 
our English hearts set down to a board to copy 
horses' heads from Venice, friezes from Rome, or 
the legs of a Syracusan Venus. 

A word or two on the great Piazza. Amma- 
nato'a " Neptune and Horses " are a finer group 
than any sculpture existing in Paris. Giovanni di 
Bologna's " Rape of a Sabine " is the pet of 
Florence ; no doubt it has great merits, but mo- 
desty is not one. Michael Angclo's colossal " David " 
had better change his name ; suppose we say " Nadir 
Shah." Benvenuto Cellini's " Perseus " is the finest 
bronze I ever dreamt of. One group is here worth 
walking all the way from Turin to look at, but it 
is antique. Homer's report of the battle scarcely 
surpasses this portraiture of " Ajax, or Menelaus 
supporting Patroclus's dead Body." The corpse is 
stripped, but the living warrior wears his helmet, 
on which you think you sec the javelins raining, 
while he sustains the body of Achilles's friend. 
The drooping attitude of the one, the watchful 
guard of the other, are marvellously rendered. It 
seems to me that no chisels have ever come up to 


the Greek in depicting tenderness. Canova is far- 
ther behind them in this than he is in majesty. 
Michael Angelo is not always natural ; he is, how- 
ever, original, having little that I can see in 
common with the Greek masters. In what is 
gloomy and terrible I conceive he has gone beyond 
them ; his chisel reminds me of the pen of ^Eschy- 
lus, or the brush of Salvator Rosa. Perhaps Do- 
natello was the best Italian sculptor. 

The Old Palace of the Uffizj contains separate 
rooms of the different schools of painting which 
have risen in Europe. Like all collections which 
embrace a specimen of every kind, much of this is 
second-rate and wearisome. Here and there you 
come upon an old faded picture ill-hung, which no- 
body knows any thing about, but which fixes your 
attention : the catalogues give a guess at the 
author. The Gallery of Busts is extensive, but 
lacks a true nomenclature: those which are well 
authenticated arc deeply interesting, as exhibiting 
the phrenological development of character: who 
can doubt what Augustus was in disposition, with 
that ambitious head and calm impassive cast of 
features ? the contour, especially the lower part of 
the face, reminded me of Napoleon. 

c 2 


Tlie Hall of Niobe is a great treat. This was a 
fine subject for a sculptor, embodying fervid natu- 
ral affections with something of the sublime and 
mysterious. % Colossal proportions always lack finish, 
but sometimes this is in their favour: certainly 
whenever one stops to examine details, the general 
effect is lost. The mother's attitude and gesture, 
as she endeavours to shelter her youngest, are noble 
and touching. The figures of the unhappy off- 
spring, represented in flight round the hall, have 
been censured as being studied and theatrical. I 
should say they are natural enough, but undignified; 
the idea suggested is that of " sauve qui peut." 

The truth is, however, a first visit to the Uffizj 
is made chiefly to see what the " Tribuna " contains. 
This is a small octagonal room, with light admitted 
only from above : the moment you enter you are 
conscious that some of the chefs-d'oeuvre of the world 
in painting and sculpture are gathered round you. 
Of the marbles, I think the u Spy" is the most 
powerful figure : at the first look it always seems 
to me to be alive. 

The " Dancing Fawn" has the additional merit of 
presenting active motion with exquisite balance. 
The " Wrestlers" I expected would edge along the 


floor and roll over one. " Apollo" is a pretty, sleepy 
youth ; faultless and uninteresting. The " Medicis' 
Venus" occupies a pedestal in the centre of the 
apartment. The charm of this figure is her incom- 
parable attitude: Virgil remarks on the stately 

" et vera incessu patuit Dea ;* — 

Thompson, better, of his Musidora, — 

" So stands the statue that enchants the world." 

Modesty and dignity are combined in the general 
effect: if details were examined, there would be 
many faults found now, owing to its numerous re- 
storations. The base of the pedestal bears inscribed 

" KXew fievrjg 6 AOrjvaioc :" 

a good travelling name, but without a shadow of 

Perhaps the pictures are yet more choice. Guer- 
cino's " Sibyl " has a great deal of inspiration. 

Andrea del Sarto's "Madonna and Child with 
two Saints," one of the most beautiful groups in the 

Daniel da Volterra's "Massacre of the Inno- 
cents," a fine painting ; probably Michael Angelo 
helped him in the foreshortening. ., 

c 3 


The " Fornarina," so called, ascribed to Raffael, 
because of its exquisite finish; but more likely to 
have been done by some Venetian painter, such as 

The Titians here are well known by copies 
throughout Europe: the originals ought to be 
veiled, and the copies burnt. 

I could not praise as they deserve the two youth- 
ful Madonnas with Christ and St. John, by Raffael, 
so will not attempt it. Has he ever equalled these 
productions in innocence and dignity ? 

At the Pitti there are not above five hundred 
paintings in all ; and most of these are of large size ; 
so that your eye is not wearied by multiplicity and 
diminutive figures. 

The Salvator Rosas, Claudes, and Ruysdaels are 
wonderful things. Among the few small pictures 
here is the " Seggiola : " this was really painted on 
the bottom of a cask, the only board he had at 
hand. Who but Raffael Sanzio d* Urbino could 
have grouped and coloured this ? Uut the Madon- 
na's cast of countenance is noways comparable to 
that in the Tribuna. 

Above six thousand copies in oils, mostly bad 
ones, have already been taken from this picture ; 


the greater part for England : thfe trade still goes 
on at the rate of a hundred a year. Very many of 
these are copied from one another. 

Tuscan inlaid work may be admired here in some 
large tables : the materials arc costly marbles, mala- 
chite, lapis-lazuli, and precious stones ; and a mimic 
creation, animal, mineral, and vegetable, is rendered 
with the fidelity of the brush and pallette. Whoever 
has seen Warwick Castle will remember a Tablet 
there, the work of Italian craftsmen, which may 
give some idea of productions of which a poet 
would say, — 

" Materiem superabat opus." 

Here are more halls of Sculpture. The " Venus 
Anadyomene " I don't like ; though it is a relief to 
see the marble original after the heavy bronze casts 
in Paris. Canova's " Venus " is a wonderful per- 
formance for our day: it was this chef-d'oeuvre 
which, when the Athenian beauty went a captive 
to the Louvre, filled the vacant pedestal, and re- 
ceived from the Italians the name of " La Consola- 
trice." Certes this all-gifted people are an instance of 
the truth of Bacon's rtJmark " that men are only 
grown-up children." 

o 4 


The " Cena " in San Salvi, by Andrea del Sarto, 
disappointed me. There is a lack of individuality 
in the Apostles 1 heads : moreover, they are not suf- 
ficiently dignified. Simple men, it is true, they 
were; fishermen &c. : but men who had left all 
and followed the Lord. Of course, as the artist 
must have living models, he sketched in his friends, 
but he might have selected them better. Leon- 
ardo da Vinci knew what was due to his stupendous 
theme : he would not take one man in a thousand 
while delineating the Twelve ; and on the Saviour's 
head he exhausted all his powers of conception, and 
left to his country the noblest outline that was ever 

Mr. Powers studio here collects a crowd of visitors. 
We have seen his "Eve," and his " Greek Slave," two 
original compositions. The first of these professes 
to represent abstract Woman ; so says Mr. Power. 
She must not be a muse, or a sibyl, or a martyr ; 
nor a clever woman, nor a dull woman, nor a 
heroine, nor a washerwoman ; but an abstract 
woman, some six feet without her shoes, the fitter 
to be the mother of us all. The enthusiasm of 
artists makes one smile : how, in the name of good- 
ness, is she to be abstract ? What one of the sex 


was ever abstract? Water that would not flow, 
fire that would not burn, were easier to discover 
than such an abstraction. Schiller's definition of a 
Housewife in the "Lied von der Glockc" might warn 
him against attempting such a creation. Consc* 
quently this beautiful statue is heavy and sleepy. 
The " Greek Slave " is in a different style, and will 
be a greater favourite. The story which her pretty 
but melancholy face tells is that of an Eastern 
market of the worst kind. Mr. Power is an agree- 
able man, and willing to impart his ideas in speech 
as well as in Carrara marble. 

The rotunda of San Lorenzo contains the most 
extraordinary work of art in Florence : this is a 
sitting statue of a certain Duke of Urbino. The 
first glance at it made me start ; Michael Angelo 
has graced the dark astute countenance with a 
plumed helmet, from under which the grim Duke 
literally scowls upon you. I thought of the " Uomo 
di Sasso" in " Don Juan," and of Alfonso's statue 
in the " Castle of Otranto," whose nose drops 
blood. " Day" and " Night, " by the same chisel, are 
unfinished colossal figures: rude as they are, one 
forgets while gazing at them the lavished treasure 
of the Medicis in the panels all around. 


The Duomo of Florence, looked at from any spot 
within half a mile, is heavy : but climb one of the 
hills a little farther off, and its elliptical proportions 
in the cupola are found to be delicate. The con- 
struction of this, the first double dome ever reared 
in Europe, by Arnolfo di Lnpo and Brunelleschi, 
has furnished an interesting architectural memoir. 
The form of an egg is stud to have suggested to the 
former its beautiful outline ; the dome is, however, 
polygonal. Its cross clears 360 feet above the 
pavement of the Piazza; this is some 90 feet under 
St. Peter's. The Florence Cupola is, they say, by 
some few " braccia the higher of the two, but the 
other is raised on prodigiously lofty piers. A few 
yards from the cathedral stands its Campanile, well 
known as Giotto's tower, and probably unmatched in 
the world, unless it be by some pile at Agra or Delhi. 
That extraordinary man built it, and must, I think, 
have had a pictorial vision of it for a twelvemonth 
before. Its height is, perhaps, two thirds of that 
of the Duomo, and from the square base on which 
it stands it rises at once into the perpendicular, 
without step or mound to break the simple right 
angle : this gives sublimity. The breadth of either 
side is about one sixth of the altitude, and the 


exquisite finish bestowed on so stately an object 
surprises every one ; though more than 500 years 
old, it looks as fresh as a Sevres jar just come from 
glazing. Marbles of three different colours mingle 
in its composition; the balustrade on the top is 
pierced in open roses, and the lancet-windows are 
as light and spidery as twisted bronze-work can 
make them. Some famous statues by Donaletto 
are hereabouts: one or two seem inclined to con- 
fabulate, as in M. Angelo's day, who complained 
because that of St. Mark would not speak to him ; 
but they want cleaning sadly, — at present, marble 
looks like bronze. I don't admire the Baptistery^ 
because it is shaped like a teetotum : but even if it 
were faultless, one would forget its architecture at 
sight of the bronze gates it bears. One of these is 
a special prodigy, equal to Achilles's shield. Ghi- 
berti expended thirty years' labour upon it. The 
Creation and the History of the Patriarchs are the 
subjects, simply and grandly treated. Despite of 
almost microscopic details and an " alto rilievo," 
the outlines arc sharp and clear, as if of yesterday, 
thanks to an Italian climate. 

Santa Croce contains the chief monuments raised 
by Florence to the memory of her illustrious men. 


Alfierfa is the best, though hardly worthy of Canova. 
In Dr. Lamia's figure the drapery is very well 
managed. Those erected to Galileo and Dante, by 
Ricci, are enormous failures. Dante's case is worst 
of all: it would seem that Florence is neither to 
have the body of the " divin pocta," nor a cenotaph 
worthy of his name. This church has one good 
painting by Cigoli. I am sorry to say the building 
lacks a facade, though it fronts one of the largest 
piazzas in the city. Query, how many of the 
Italian churches are paid for ? very few of them 
appear to be finished. 

The Church del Santo Spirito is chaste and simple 
in its style of architecture. Filippo Lippts pic- 
tures arc here : this man's colouring is like a collar 
of emeralds on scarlet velvet. The Christ in marble 
is Michael Angelo's chef-d'oeuvre : it has all his 
wonted power, with an indefinable sweetness which 
he has either not sought after, or else has failed of 

The little Church of the Carmelites has Masaccio's 
frescoes in a compartment round the altar. The 
best painters have pondered these ; Raffael en- 
graved them on his brain. All honour to the man 
-who depicted so simply and truly ! Thej' say the 


spot has witnessed some singular scenes: it was 
here that Buonarotti had his nose flattened for ever 
by a " picturesque" blow from a companion's mallet. 
John Baptist is the patron-saint of Florence. 
On the day of St. Giovanni, the sovereign heard 
mass and took the sacrament in the beautiful 
church of Santa Maria Novella, The morning 
opened with an endless procession filing through 
the principal streets and squares ; this comprised 
the clergy, all the monks within the city parishes, 
and a body of troops, horse and foot, with the 
royal household. Pictured banners and crucifixes 
occurred at every hundred yards, and bands of 
choristers chanting as they went. I thought the 
visible splendour was unnecessarily adopted to 
honour a man who wore a camel's-hair garment 
and whose head Herod cut off in prison. If they 
would bestir themselves to put down every thing 
akin to the dancing daughter of Herodias, it were 
a fitter tribute. Something grotesque comes out 
on these occasions, as if to make pomp take physic. 
Did you ever see a wax flambeau ? they are as 
plentiful here as blackberries : the sort commonly 
used consists of a number of candles a yard long, 
stuck side by side together, and fonning a torch as 


thick as a man's arm. All the wicks being lighted 
at once, and the motion of the air flaring them, the 
flow of melted wax is considerable. Now the 
choristers marched between a double row of these 
flambeaux carried by lads dressed as under-deacons ; 
a little behind them was coming the archbishop 
with the consecrated host in a pix, and after him 
the sovereign on foot, bareheaded, and holding a 
taper; all Florence looked on from tapestried bal- 
cony and window, and the troops were drawn out 
rank and file in the Piazza. The coup-d'oeil was 
solemn and gorgeous ; nevertheless, throughout the 
whole length of the cort&ge where these flambeaux 
advanced, scores of urchins, mostly half-naked, 
clung by twos and threes round every bearer of a 
light, and scrambled along with him towards the 
church steps. Some held up tin ladles, some broken 
saucers, some bits of dirty paper, others were con- 
tent with their own paws — and what do you sup- 
pose they were all doing intently ? — clutching the 
melted wax as it guttered over, and patting it up 
into a cake to carry home to their mammies ! 

As soon as the Grand Duke had communicated, 
an event notified to those outside the church by 
a volley from the muskets in the Piazza, the diver- 


sions of the day commenced for the middling and 
lower classes. The town was as bright as a new 
dollar, every householder hung out at first, second, 
and third floors his gaudiest carpets, coverlids, 
and " fazzolctti;" shops were shut, cafds and stalls 
open, barrels of iced lemonade and huge slices of 
" cocomeri " promenaded the streets. Men, women, 
and children were dressed in rainbow patterns, 
and all was good humour, which is better than 
barren philosophy." The jockey races were ludi- 
crous, and therefore satisfactory; nearly every 
rider was spilt, and the successful champion won 
chiefly because the others lost. It is but fair to 
noto that they ride without saddle or stirrups. 

The chariot races round the Piazza were heavy 
imitations of old Roman pastime. After this, five 
horses ran without riders two miles through the 
heart of the city, threading the living lane of 
people, whipped on by pendant goads, amid a con- 
tinuous broadside of shouts and yells, but mad to 
win. The pace was first-rate. But will any 
prime minister or master of ceremonies expound 
wherein this redounds to the honour or blessed- 
ness of the preacher in the desert ? 

The Sovereign, with his Grand Duchess and 


family, witnessed all from a raised platform, whefe 
all the people could look at them. The Grand 
Duchess is a handsome woman; and her royal 
spouse, whom you may meet of a summer's evening 
strolling in the Cascine, is the beau-ideal of — may 
I say it ? — an English gentleman-farmer. By-the- 
by, Altezza would think it a compliment, for 
farming is his hobby. He fattens his soldiers on 
rice, and his cows, I believe, on oil-cake; and 
maintains, moreover, a preserve of the only phea- 
sants near Florence, from which the Pope gets a 
" rcgalo " at Christmas. 

The most delightful establishment here is one 
where the waters from mint, orange, elder-flowers, 
&c. are prepared ; it is in the hands of the monks 
of St. Maria Novella, and no chemists in the city 
can compete with them. No one should visit 
Florence without visiting this. We saw stacks of 
roses and orange-blossoms, with whole regiments 
of flasks, and the perfume when you enter is de- 
licious. These monks understand every thing; 
they bake the best bread, press the purest oil, and 
have cellars of unadulterated wine. 

After this I think the prettiest sight are the 
straw bonnets, famous all over Europe. I have 


forgot all the London prices, but good Tuscans sell 
well here; you may choose your straw according to 
your purse, from three crowns up to one hundred 
and twenty. Most of the finer pipes are dried in 
the neighbourhood; on a sunny morning the 
banks of the Arno are spread with them for a 
mile or two. 

The weather is warm now, and folks are getting 
cautious about dogs, on the score of hydrophobia. 
Italian doctors are generally over-timid, but there 

arc exceptions. Signor Z , one of the leading 

men in the faculty here, tried the other day an 
experiment which would startle us in England. A 
man, had been bitten by a rabid dog, and the worst 
symptoms soon followed. It was suggested, the case 
being apparently hopeless, to try the effect of 
infusing a different saliva into the system. Vi- 
perine venom was fixed upon, as being powerful 
enough to ensure a counteracting affection ; and 
nine live vipers were procured from Prince Napo- 
leon Jerome Buonaparte, who keeps a menagerie of 
those animals for philosophical purposes. All nine 
were made to bite the unhappy sufferer. The 
sequel was shocking; hydrophobic symptoms dis- 
appeared, but the man died of the vipers' bites. 



Hereupon, as they succeeded in quelling the 
original evil, the faculty maintain that their remedy 
was good, only the dose administered was too 
large a one. (a) 

Signor Zanetti conducted this operation : he is a 
quiet, intelligent man, but, as you may believe, 
fears nothing. 

The police, however, hold prevention to be better 
than cure, and they adopt a jaummary process. 
All dogs found unmuzzled are immediately 
knocked on the head; at night also a gratuitous 
distribution of poisoned sausages takes place in 
certain streets for the express benefit of hungry 
tykes. In this way they contrive to get rid .of a 
good many. 

Florence, end of August. 
We start for Siena to-morrow morning, as sundry 
letters of introduction, unprcsented as yet, begin 
to sit heavy on my conscience. During this last 
month we have seen something of the Cainpngna 
here, in the course of a visit to the three sanc- 
tuaries of Tuscany. In Italy whenever you can 
exchange the beaten track for cross-roads and bye- 
paths over the hills, you gain immensely, 


both in scenery and fresh air. Looking back 
upon this little jaunt, the varied landscapes into 
the heart of which it led us, and the agreeable 
company in which it was made, I do not know 
that we have enjoyed any thing so much since we 
have been abroad. 

A drive of fourteen miles brought us to Pelago ; 
here a friend met us by appointment, having 
kindly taken a holiday for that end, and in " trio" 
guise, with a single servant, and a spare mule to 
carry the " impedimenta," we proceeded on horse- 
back up the hill-path to VaJULombi % osa. 

Let me here, while that verdant scene is fresh in 
my memory, pay a tribute in the person of one in- 
dividual to the courtesy and bonhommic of the 
Italian character as developed in Tuscany ; Signor 
V. de Tivoli, though his family is, I believe, Roman 
by extraction, has long been domiciled in Florence, 
and I think in his heart, he loves it as much as if 
it were his native city : his native land it is, but 
Italians see as wide a difference between Tuscany 
and the Papal States, or Lombardy and Naples, as 
we do between broad England and the land north 
of the Tweed ; indeed they see a wider, for reasons 
which must be sought in their history. Sismondi's 

» 2 


book, now in everybody's hands, explains all this 
very well. Signor de Tivoli's kind heart and obliging 
demeanour are known to almost all English visitors : 
the end for which, with a constitution naturally 
delicate, he labours indefatigably is perhaps known 
to few : I believe he is the chief support of several 
poorer relatives. 

We ascended a brae as fertile as the valley we 
had left beneath us, the prospect improving in 
beauty as we mounted. Two hours ride intro- 
duced us to a plot of ground allowed to run wild, 
but thickset with the arbutus and myrtle ; spruce- 
firs growing up from the underwood : this was 
Milton's Eden. At the end of the wilderness an 
avenue of dark pines led to the court of the 
convent ; threading it, we turned an outer corner 
of masonry, and dismounted on a green meadow, 
girt on two sides by pine trees, fenced with a 
garden enclosure on a third, and opening in front 
on a noble view of the Val d'Arno. 

The monastery of Benedictines, with its court 
and offices, occupies, perhaps, an acre and a half of 
ground ; behind this rose a wooded cliff, and a hill 
behind that, and midway towered a crag with the 
hermitage called " Paradisino," on its summit. 


Shelving masses of rock peeped out at intervals 
from the dark brushwood, and a torrent trickled 
down a small ravine. 

An Englishman with Milton in his hand, feels 
almost like a proprietor while thus placed : — 

" Where delicious Paradise, 

Now nearer, crowns with her inclosure green, 

As with a rural mound, the champaign head 

Of a steep wilderness, whose hairy sides 

With thicket overgrown, grotesque and wild, 

Access denied : and overhead up grew 

Insuperable height of loftiest shade, 

Cedar and pine, and fir, and branching palm, 

A sylvan scene ; and as the ranks ascend, 

Shade above shade, a woody theatre 

Of stateliest view. Yet higher than their tops 

The verdurous wall of Paradise up sprung." 

The cedar and palm are wanting now, but were 
likely enough there in Milton's day, as the Ap- 
penine woods have been fast thinning under the 
axe for many years in Tuscany. Allowing for 
this change, 1 do not know a more accurate skctcli 
anywhere, not even in Wordsworth. The sur- 
rounding " Eden" was also no doubt wilder then 
than in its present aspect. 

Milton was indebted to a tour in Italy for many 

D 3 


of his landscapes; but it is remarkable that the 
two poems which bear an Italian name contain 
features of scenery strictly English ; I do not re- 
member a foreign touch in either the " Allegro," 
or the " Penseroso," while " Paradise Lost," " Co- 
mus," and " Lycidas," teem with illustrations 
drawn from Italy. When the disguised son of 
Circe answers the lady's enquiry after her 
brothers, he speaks of " a green mantling vine," 
which must have been trained on trellis-work, as 
the brothers were standing under it " plucking 
ripe clusters." In the same passage occurs the 
mention of oxen used in ploughing. Both of these 
are familiar Italian features, the latter occurs in 
England also, but it is rare. 

We found the brooks in Vallombrosa all unstrewn 
as yet, but there was no lack of foliage overhead, 
ripening for the blast of autumn ; indeed, the main 
brook was little better than a rocky channel, with 
a few pools here and there barely sufficient to 
shelter the trout. In the " Casino," set apart 
for visitors, the " forcstierajo " let us lack for 
nothing. After dining we roamed through its 
grounds, climbed the cliff, and got the tiptop view 
of Val &' Arno from the wall of the Paradisino. One 


of the frati conducted the gentlemen of the party 
over the convent church. A large suite of offices 
is attached to it, the society being enormously 
wealthy and farming some of the best lands in 
Tuscany, their own property. I thought of the 
Bolton Abbey days of old England ; and for the 
twentieth time, argued in my mind the question, 
" Have we gained or lost by the Reformation ?" 
This question is a very difficult one to solve : we 
have certainly lost in some things, but we have 
gained in others. I think as regards the poor, we 
have mainly lost ; for the Church was undoubtedly 
their shelter in a sense in which it is not so now 
in England. They have now the landlord or noble 
to look up to ; formerly they had the abbot as 
well. Great as are in some parts the charities of 
the parochial clergy, these cannot counterbalance 
the depressing effect arising from diminished 
means : in many places the great tithes arc now in 
the hands of lay-impropriators. Mr. P. Fraser 
Tytler, in one of his histories, asserts that the 
church lands were better cultivated under the old 
system than they can be now — if I do not mis- 
quote him. This would prove a great deal; for 
the fate of the poor hangs by the laud. 

D 4 


I saw nothing within the church so admirable 
as the choir, carved in black walnut, and some 
" terra cotta " groups by Luca della llobbia. 
The paintings, though vaunted, were perhaps as 
well away. I made a sketch of this pretty scene 
while my companion looked at the library, which 
is said to be a fine one. 

Whoever purposes a ride to Camaldoli should 
dress himself or herself as they would for a day 
with the Fitzwilliam hounds. Seven hours were 
consumed on this cross-country road, though not 
much above twenty miles. It commenced by 
dykes and old watercourses, with an amiable 
interlude of pits and stumps of trees, and ended 
with a desperate scramble over the back of a 
schistous mountain. Our cattle behaved as 
unruly members of society do in the treadmill, 
they went forward because they could not help it ; 
he who led the van laden with carpet-bags was 
unreasonably fractious; but for a boy's arm and 
cudgel he would have charged through our ranks 
and gone home half-a-dozen times. 

It was a glowing sunset when we reached the glen 
where Camaldoli lies ; the hills above were gor- 
geously tinted with the hues of harvest, while the 


dell with its masses of white masonry and dark 
woods lay buried in shade. We were past the curfew 
hour and had to knock up the forestierajo to 
come and get us supper in the village and beds 
at the Casino. This frate was a jolly fellow 
and fond of the Inglesi. He not only catered for 
us and presided at the meal, but on our pressing 
him partook with us of the convent cheer. He 
was inquisitive about England, and among other 
questions asked what we did for wine. I told him 
that we bought of our neighbours, French, Spanish, 
and Portuguese. " What did we pay ?" " Oh ! 
a great deal too much; from 8 paulls to 30, a 
bottle," (a paull is about 5d. of our money.) He 
held up his hands at this, and he said he would 
bring us some " Vin dolce bianco," the " dolce " 
implying an assurance that you shall not swallow 
vinegar. It really was not so bad: something 
like cider, at a paul a bottle. After this he told 
us that liis own income did not exceed 100 dollars - 
a year, out of which he found everything, including 
his dress, which is a loose body-gown and hood of 
white flannel. This frate, like many others, is of 
good family. 

Next day we scaled the cliff by a beautiful path 


through a firwood to see the " Eremo " or San 
Romualdo's hermitage, connected with the convent. 
This is the place where divers of the Camaldolesi 
are sent, or come voluntarily, " per fare penitenza." 
It has been here 800 years, since the popedom of 
Sylvester II., who set Romualdo over it. The 
scene is wild and comfortless, and a very severe 
rule is followed by those undergoing the discipline. 
I went over some of the cells with my guide, who 
was unusually voluble in his replies to questions 
asked, of which I learnt the cause afterwards. The 
cells are wretched ; generally bare earth under foot, 
a bench for furniture, a corner for a little straw at 
night, a wooden platter, and the crucifix on the 
wall. A devotional book is allowed, but speech 
is prohibited, save when they are chanting in 
church. The guide was making up for lost time in 
virtue of his office. I enquired how they fared in 
winter ; " Molto male," was the reply : and then 
he told me that the January snowdrifts are tre- 
mendous, sometimes burying their little community 
of huts for many feet above the surface of the 
threshold. At these seasons the superior causes a 
bell to be rung an hour before matins, and the 
frati in turn relievo each other at the spade and 


shovel to clear a path to the church. The cold also 
is severe, owing to the Apennine winds ; and if any 
frate falls ill his danger and suffering are aggravated 
by there being no leech at hand. It was some 
comfort to know that fifteen days is generally 
the extreme period of their stay aloft. There were 
about a dozen actually on the Eremo list. Their 
church I thought beautiful; it has two Moorish- 
looking towers in front, and within is simply and 
reverently ordered. Here is a picture representing 
the " miracolo " of the saint arresting by his prayers 
the descent of a large tree, which threatens in its 
fall to crush the infant building. The reigning 
pope, I believe, is a Cainaldolese. 

Vallombrosa has the advantage of associations 
and a name, but parts of the Camaldoli scenery 
are finer. It seems it was originally called " Campo 
Amabile," in reference, perhaps, to a pretty parkish 
meadow in which the Casino stands. We left on 
the third morning ; I now regret we did not stay 
several days. 

There is nothing remarkable on the road to 
Laverna, unless it be the town of Bibbiena, perched 
on a crag in the valley, and famous for hogs. We 
traversed a rugged line of country, forded a pebbly 


stream, and toiled across a moor ; it was noon when 
we reached the foot of the cliff on whose summit 
this eagle's nest is lodged. The sun was now 
scorching up every thing round us : plants crackled, 
streams stood still, butterflies grew giddy and dropt 
asleep, and the stubbles by the roadside teemed 
with diminutive fleas ! If naturalists won't credit 
this, I can't help it ; I appeal to my terrier, Fox, 
who actually lost his pluck, and looked back ever 
and anon to see if his tail was coming behind him. 

The paved way winding up the cliff was a stiff 
bit for horses who had come such a five hours' 
stage. Ours, however, got over it gaily, being 
doubtless aware of a store of fodder in the Francis- 
cans' stalls above. Dante calls this mountain 
" crudo sasso infra Tever 'ed Arno." He is, as 
usual, very accurate. They say it is the central 
" punto" of Italy, reckoning from Savoy to the 
kingdom of Naples lengthwise. The platform on 
the summit looks down on a glorious prospect. 
There must be forty miles of Valdarno, as the crow 
flies, stretched out in a green map below, arms of 
the Apennine running across it here and there, and 
towns such as Poppi and Bibbiena shooting up like 
citadels from the vale. 


After the luxury of a profound siesta for an 
hour, we made a meal on such fare as the friars 
could bring forth on a Friday. Soup and coffee 
with caviare and bread and butter spread the board. 
Tea we had brought with us from Florence, and it 
now proved a welcome treat. 

This spot, though it can lay no claim to the 
beauties of Vallombrosa or Camaldoli, is as inte- 
resting as either of them. The rock is precipitous 
on three sides, with a depth varying from 200 to 
300 feet; on the fourth side it runs out into a 
natural causeway, with buttresses of a columnar 
form, at sight of which it is said Hannibal turned 
back when meditating his descent on Valdarno. 
However this be, the features of the place are those 
of a fortress where much might be done at little 
cost to repel an invader. 

The extent of the monastery is enormous ; besides 
a very complete system of cells, here is the library, 
the refectory, and the kitchen and other offices, 
also a monk's farmacia. The beautiful church 
stands in a paved court edging on the cliff, a scene 
well fitted for contemplation. A long gallery is 
frescoed with the principal " events" in their 
founder's life, a series of daring impostures on the 


part of certain monks improved upon from time to 
time. We heard as much of the marvellous as we 
could well digest at once, but a fresh batch of 
country people arriving, the young frate very soon 
heightened the picture. " Here," said he, " is the 
ledge of rock from which the blessed St. Francis 
was pitched by the devil into that field below." I 
rejected this, as being dishonouring to the saint's 
reputation, who was a right holy man, and noways 
devil-possessed ; but our " cicerone" contended for 
the privilege of landing with unbroken bones, which 
certainly under the circumstances would be desi- 

It is a pity that they will insist upon " puffing " 
a man who stands as little in need of it as any 
who ever wore the hood and amice and went bare- 

The caverns in the face of the cliff are an 
undeniable wonder. You descend, perhaps, 100 
feet by a winding stair outside, and enter by a 
natural portal. Here the scene was singular: 
huge blocks of stone, some of them 20 and 30 feet 
in length, and of all conceivable shapes, lay piled 
one upon another, far below the foundation of the 
monastery, in such utter confusion that they 


reminded me of pebbles shot out of a wheelbarrow. 
One mass with a keel rides upon the back of 
another. The place has none of the features of a 
quarry. I asked the frate what he thought of it, 
geologically : " E miracolo," was the ready reply, 
which he explained by saying that when the rocks 
were rent at the crucifixion of our blessed Lord, 
this rending of the bowels of Laverna's mountain 
took place simultaneously. This was not so bad ; 
indeed I never heard a Roman Catholic make a 
foolish answer when he had been at the trouble of 
thinking for himself; which latter is a rare thing 
with them. 

As no woman may pass a night within these 
convent walls, I descended the cliff late in the 

evening with J , to see that she was well cared 

for: a bed for us both in the little village could 
not be got, but we applied at the nunnery, where 
two sisters, advanced in life, agreed to make her 
comfortable; a pledge which they fulfilled well 
and kindly. Re-ascending the " poggio faticoso ed 
alto," I leaned on a stout ash-stick which I had 
cut in the meadow below. " Un buon cavallo ! " 
said my guide, and quoted the proverb of " Andarc 
col cavallo di San Francesco." It is certainly the 


best horse hereabouts, for I remounted in half the 
time our four-footed friends had required in the 
morning. This frate was very inquisitive on the 
subject of the English railways. 

An early ride of twenty miles next morning, and 
a drive of near fifty, brought us back to the banks 
of the Arno at the witching hour of eve, — " Come 
la mosca cede alia Zanzara." On our way we 
passed the Campoldino, where Dante fought; and 
were shown, in a parish church, the " natural 
mummy " of his commentator, the Landino, dried 
like a plant in a herbarium ! — a singularity upon 
which I feel no inclination to comment myself. I 
hear, however, these sort of things are by no 
means rare in Ireland ; and I know that among 
the Scotch Highlands the bodies of such as die in 
winter are sometimes " salted up " in a chest until 
spring comes. 

SIENA. 49 


Poggierello, near Siena, end of September. 

This villa is a pretty spot in the immediate 
neighbourhood of the old Etruscan town ; and we 
have had a month's cooling here after the sultry 
heats of Florence. Many things remind me of 
an English mansion in this place ; we have a tidy 
lawn and a labyrinth of evergreens, and there is a 
great round well in the court behind. The main 
difference lies in the acres round the house being 
planted out with vines and olives, instead of apple 
trees and cabbages. Further, we have a hall with 
frescoes, twice as many rooms as we want, and a 
cast of Apollo in the garden. If that don't content 
us, we must be difficult to please. 

The Northern Gate of Siena is but a mile distant, 
and whenever you lift your eyes to a block over 
the gateway you are invited to enter the city by 
an old legend which it bears ; " Cor magis tibi 
Sena pandit ! " Sena being the Julian name. This 
promise of hospitality is well kept. We have long 
since presented our letters, and have been kindly 



received. The elegant mansion of Conte Pieri has 
always been thrown open to foreigners with a 
liberality and kindness of heart to which Siena is 
indebted for much of her present prosperity. I 
mention this one name from a sense of grateful 
obligation, and not as conveying to anybody 
information which is new to them. But there 
are several others, old and noble families, who are 
nothing behind the amiable Count and Countess 
in goodwill and graceful attentions. Perhaps our 
national character and demeanour would not be 
the worse of a little more " empressement " in 
this respect: demonstrations, when sincere, can 
hardly be overdone. A kind word sometimes 
goes further than a purse of gold. 

If the utterance of good wishes and greetings 
may be held to indicate kindly feeling in the 
speaker, surely Italy is the home of benevolent 
courtesy. " May you wake up like a rose ! " is a 
form of good-night which I have heard addressed 
to a lady on her retiring. " Felicissima notte!" 
is a very usual one; in which the superlative 
never sounds like heartless hyperbole, but rather 
reminds one of the fervent phraseology of our 

SIENA. 51 

The Grand Duke has a representative here in 
the person of a resident Governor who holds once 
in the week a sort of Court-soiree. The actual 
" locum tenens " is a Florentine, a matter somewhat 
grievous to the Sienncse, who naturally are better 
pleased when the Sovereign's choice falls on some 
head among their own ancient houses. The old 
grudge of the middle ages has also left a feeling of 
rivalry on certain points between the two cities; 
and Florence being the favoured capital while 
Siena is now only a provincial town, the latter 
hardly gets fair play at times. The Count Sends- 
tori is, however, reputed an upright and active 
minister: and where there is esteem, liking will 
always follow. 

Society is on an easy, chatty footing in the cir- 
cles of Siena. There is a good deal of dancing, 
continual whist of the kind called "Sturm" im- 
ported from Russia, and a musical assembly once a 
week at the Contessa Pieri's. The singing, such as 
we have heard, is mediocre ; but we came late in 
the season for the nightingales as well as for the 
festas. From our windows here we have two or 
three sketchable views : in one of these the moun- 
tain of Santa Fiora, an extinct volcano, comes in ; 

B 2 


in another a picturesque tower, which the country- 
people call " Palazzo del Diavoli," for an absurd 
reason as far as I can gather. It was tenanted 
once by a family named " Turco," the members of 
which came to be pluralised as " Turchi ; " the 
contadini understanding by this nothing better 
than " Turks and Infidels " nicknamed the place 
as above. They now aver, however, that they 
were astrologers, and that an unholy use was made 
of their beautiful cylindrical tower. The prejudice 
against anything of the " starry Galileo " was pro- 
bably rife here as in Pisa; so I dare say the amount 
of it was that the Turco family peeped at Venus 
and Jupiter through some sort of telescope. 

Siena occupies the crest of a hill, and is built on 
a singular ground-plan resembling the figure of a 
star-fish. If you chance to be at the end of one of 
these rays and wish to make a call in another you 
must first return to the heart of the city ; for the 
surface of the ground runs in alternate ridges and 
ravines, and the houses cover the former. The 
population has dwindled from 100,000 to 20,000 : 
indeed none of the Tuscan cities have recovered 
. from the devastations of the plague which ravaged 
them in the time of Boccaccio. This city with 

SIENA. 53 

Florence and Pisa lost it seems among them from 
200,000 to 300,000 souls! and this in a few 
months. Poor Siena has now hindrances of her 
own : not only has her riding-school been knocked 
on the head, — a measure which I was gravely as- 
sured had endangered the peace of the Tuscan 
States, — but what is a far more serious matter, her 
criminal Court is removed to Florence. One awk- 
ward result of this is, that if one man stabs another 
in a street-brawl, every soul decamps for fear of 
being summoned fifty miles to the capital to give 
evidence, a trouble which no Italian would encoun- 
ter on any consideration. This has twice occurred 
no very long time ago. In one instance the wound- 
ed man ran a mile, his blood marking the track, 
before he could get surgical aid, it being late in 
the evening. The abolishment in Tuscany of the 
punishment of death is supposed to have greatly 
diminished the number of cases of this sort : may it 
not rather have operated to keep back evidence ? 
for an informer dreads the vengeance of the sur- 
viving culprit, whereas " dead men do not bite." 

The favourite resort of the beau-monde here is a 
small green, or rather brown plot called the 
" Lizza :" hither come the carriages to drive round 

B 3 


the diminutive enclosure — hither also come the 
townspeople with the bonnes and children to tread 
the turf and loiter under the stunted trees. After 
the Cascine of Florence it looks like a doll's garden ; 
still the scene is always cheerful, recalling ideas of 
home. A few yards further are the Fortezza and 
battlements, with a purple view at sunset of the 
country towards the Maremma. 

We have had a hailstorm here of a kind seldom 
seen in England. The moment the black cloud 
appeared in front of our hull, we ran to close the 
outer shutters, but were too late by a few seconds 
to save our glass. Pieces of ice of the size of wal- 
nuts dashed through some fifty panes in a twinkling: 
one lump I picked up was as big as a hen's egg. 
This frozen artillery kept up a discharge of nearly 
five minutes' duration. In the evening we found 
the storm had driven in a multitude of mosquitoes 
from the vines. These creatures tease us here 
whenever the gauze-net is out of order : if it has a 
brack as large as your finger-nail you arc sure to be 
woke in the dead of the night by a noise like that 
of fairy kettle-drums and fifes, with a sensation of 
poisonous heat on your face and hands. The bites 
are worse on the third day, and sometimes do not 

Si EN A. 55 

disappear for a week : there is no remedy but cold 
water and a little vinegar, and this acts but feebly. 
The mosquito is just our English gnat, only 
blacker and humped at the shoulder : he is the only 
insect I care a straw about in Italy. 

This city has one noble structure, the Duomo, 
a vast pile in the Italo-gothic style, so that you find 
round and pointed arches intermixed with many 
other eccentricities. It is unfinished, and must 
ever remain so now ; had it been completed on the 
original plan it would have been by much the 
largest building I ever saw, as there is evidence on 
the spot that all which is now extant formed only 
an aisle in the architect's design. The fa9ade, 
however, is finished, a rare thing in Italy, and very 
beautiful it is. Here are grotesque animals, sculp- 
tured to represent the different cities of the League; 
Orvieto's goose, Pisa's hare, Perugia's stork, and 
many others which I don't at this moment remem- 
ber. The she-wolf is for Siena, and an elephant 
and castle, I think, for Rome. 

The figures of the two angels bending before 
the name of Jesus over the portal are very noble : 
and the idea is one of those ocular preachings 
which meet you at almost every step in Italy. 

■ 4 


Indeed it is the Church emblems and pictures 
which mainly educate the people, who for the most 
part can neither read nor write. The interior of a 
Roman Catholic Church is an illustrated catechism, 
sometimes mingled with fable, but never suppress- 
ing fact. 

It appears to me that a Roman Catholic as he is 
has one immense advantage over a Protestant as he 
is ; supposing them both to be " good men and 
true," and determined not to go through the mock- 
ery of what is called in Ireland " a Conversion " 
either way. It is this : the Catholic's Church is 
always open, his priest always at hand : go where 
you will, matins and vespers are thronged, in some 
one or more of the parish-churches. No one can 
estimate the effect of this till he visits a Catholic 
country and resides awhile. It ensures seasons of 
rest ; it keeps alive the feeling of mercy ; it yields 
time for reflection, and oftentimes opens a door to 
repentance, and crushes the wicked deed in the 
bud of the wicked thought. The feverish crowded 
struggle of a headlong world is abated from hour to 
hour ; the counter and the bank do not become an 
imperious Moloch, absorbing the being of man and 
devouring his energies ; but each and all, as they 

SIENA. 57 

bow the knee or drop the curtsey, and retire with 
the simple sign of the Cross, carry away with them 
the remembrance that they have a nobler part, and 
a higher calling than the thing we term " self " 
and the " fashion which passeth away." 

An Englishman may object to so many pictures; 
he will think many of the rites overdone and bur- 
densome on both ministers and people; he may 
even misdoubt some among the ordained priests ; 
if he cherishes a kindly heart, he will meet with 
much to make him sad; but he can never for a 
moment doubt that he is walking in a Christian 
land, among a baptized people, who, however 
crushed by burdens, or " travestied " in human in • 
ventions, do nevertheless develope all the prominent 
features of the faith in Christ. 

I remember in Florence seeing the artisans in the 
streets lift their caps when the " mezzo-giorno " 
bell sounds ; this is to thank God for his blessings 
in creation at the moment when the sun culminates 
on the meridian. On the Rhine or the Moselle the 
boatman rests on his oars, and the passengers bow 
the head and cross themselves as they hear the Ave 
Maria bell. In Britain, the opposite to all this ob- 
tains. Through a dread of conforming to Rome 


we have discarded some good things which did not 
flow from Rome : our very proverbs are losing their 
force, and the old sayings of our more pious fore- 
fathers reproach us with their non-fulfilment. With 
what face could we now repeat the couplet of the 
bygone time ? 

" Be the day never so long, 
At length cometh even'-song." 

It once pointed to a living consolation, a daily com- 
munion of worship : now it is become a dead 

The interior of this cathedral pleases every one ; 
its vault is azure, with silver stars ; so appropriate 
a panelling ensures a good effect. The pulpit and 
stair are embossed in white marble like ivory. 
Here are the bold paintings of Beccafumi, who, like 
Giotto, was bred a shepherd-boy, and Duccio's 
pavement, a work unique in Italy; the figures 
being portrayed by lines of a dark grey marble let 
into a white ground, and the effect resembling that 
of chalks on a Bristol board. The church contains 
one warlike trophy, the poles of the carroccio taken 
from the Florentines at the battle of Monte Aperti : 
of these the Siennese, man, woman, and child, are 
sufficiently vain. 

SIENA. 59 

Many large churches arc here, disproportioned to 
the present population of the city ; the dimensions 
of San Domenico are enormous; I fear to state them 
from memory, but the vast arch in the transepts is 
a noble thing, and would be thought so anywhere. 
Here is a Madonna painted by Guido da Siena, and 
bearing the date of 1221, nineteen years before 
Cimabue was born : if they are correct in this quo- 
tation, the claim of the Siennese to being the earliest 
school in Italy is established. However this be, 
Sodoma's paintings here are more to my mind than 
many of Raffaelle's : look at his " St. Catherine 
fainting between two nuns;" who has produced 
anything more powerful than this? In San Quirico 
we saw two fine pictures by Vanni : one a " Flight 
into Egypt." 

The Town-hall has a Babel tower and some more 
Beccafumis. A pretty gothic font is here, which 
the people will call " Fonte Branda ; " Dante's 
" fontc Branda " it certainly is not ; for that rises 
somewhere near Stia } between Florence and Ca- 
maldoli : I made a note of it at the time, but we 
were too lazy to climb a sandstone cliff under a 
baking sun to look at it : the site may be known 
by some old towers. Belcaro in this neighbour- 


hood is a pretty drive : this is at once a villa and 
a fortress, and commands from its belvidere the 
best view of the Maremma country. Its porch and 
chapel are adorned with some fast-fading frescoes 
by B. Peruzzi ; our guide said " Raffaelle." Raffaelle 
must have painted through five long lives, instead 
of one short one, if he did all that is ascribed to 

All the slopes hereabouts are finely cultivated : 
Judea could hardly have had a richer dowry than 
this favoured land. — Vines, olives, fig, mulberry, 
pomegranates, cover scores of square-miles. The 
main profits are drawn from the olive, whose cul- 
ture is as carefully regulated as that of the vines 
along the Rhine. A compost of farmyard ingre- 
dients is heaped round the stem of each tree to a 
height of 2 or 3 feet, to ensure warmth : the crop 
is in alternate years, between which the trees lie 
fallow as to any gathering. The olive hangs till it 
is the colour of a ripe mulberry. Their red " vin 
ordinario" here is excellent: I think equal to 
" Hermitage," but you must temper it with water. 
I only wish the people would fat their fowls as 
they do themselves, but these are wholly cast on 
Providence. Dogs and cats the same. Even the 


horses do not get much corn ; but plenty of lupins 
and grass, and I dare say green rice, which now 
and then carries them off by a dysentery. All 
these matters an Italian takes very coolly. They 
arc most affected by the loss of anything that is 
beautiful : and all persons and animals are classed 
as being " pretty " or " ugly," as if these implied 
intrinsic moral character: the white ox in the 
vineyard is called "Bellino;" a parent mentioning 
the " ragazze " always tells you of this or that, that 
she is " bella " or " brutta," as the case may be : 
our cook's little daughter is very poorly and the 
mother fears she will die: the father says "Mi 
dispiace molto per questa piccola: era tanto gra- 
ziosa ! " There is both affection and levity in this. 
A custom in society here is when you get pretty 
intimate to address every body, married or single, 
by their Christian name. If we stay another month 
among these kind people, your humble servant and 
his better half will be " Giovanni" and " Giovanna," 
and never any thing else. 

Florence again ; November 26th. 

Six weeks have been spent in saying farewell to 
this beautiful city, owing to our having been detained 


by a flood from the Arno. The waters are now 
at length drying up, and to-morrow we quit it 
on the road to Rome. A month since we ran 
down to Pisa, and saw the Leaning Tower, which, 
after Giotto's Campanile here, is the choicest thing 
in Tuscany. Connoisseurs find fault with the irre- 
gular style of a building where the columns vary in 
size and order. It is sometimes a pleasure not to be 
learned enough to criticise; I confess this struck 
me as a peculiar charm, contrasting as it does 
with the monotonous, metal-roofed Duomo and 
Baptistery, where one accurate pattern is repeated 
throughout each tier, with the minute perfection of 
an Indian Pagoda. From the summit of the Cam- 
panile, you get a good idea of the country round. 
Bold cliffs, a marshy plain bisected by the Leghorn 
Railway, and far away that city clustering like an 
oyster-bed on the marine bay. The notion that 
this tower was originally intended to slant is now 
exploded ; a little examination on the spot would 
be sufficient to convince any one of the contrary. 
The upper stones are slightly curved in the oppo- 
site direction, so as to give to the tower the form 
of the bole of a tree. The idea never occurred to 
the architect till the lower part of the building had 


sunk and " settled" through the boggy nature of 
the ground. These same springs still flood its 
area, and produce that grass of vivid green which 
.clothes the piazza. Moreover, the Duomo and 
Baptistery both of them lean over; but in their case 
the slope merely looks awkward, not being suffici- 
ently marked to form a picturesque angle with the 

The Duomo is certainly a gorgeous pile, but too 
tricky and pagoda-like to hit my taste, as a cathe- 
dral. The paintings here by Andrea del Sarto are 
exquisite ; two of these are imaginary portraits of 
saints, and may be found near the high altar ; the 
other is a St. Agnes, and hangs on a pillar of the 
nave, protected by a fee-curtain. Till I saw these 
I had no idea how well he could paint. 

The Campo Santo demands more time than all 
the other sights in Pisa together. Here is the field 
of" holy earth" from Palestine, some rare objects 
of antiquity, and Orgagna's frescoes with others. 
His " Triumph of Death" is a fanciful thing, but 
with a reality in some of the groups which could 
hardly be surpassed. His " Last Judgment" I did 
not admire : I think he had better have let the sub- 
ject alone, if only out of reverence. M. Angelo is 


said to have borrowed from it largely ; if so, I shall 

not like his great picture in the Sistine Chapel. 

The site of the " Torre della fame " presents 

nothing of the tower now, save its fearful memory, 

but that will last till the crack of doom. It does 

not, however, appear to be well ascertained how 

many of his sons or grandsons were locked up with 

Ugolino when the keys were thrown into the 


" Ahi Pisa ! vituperio delle genti 
Del bel paese la dove il si suona, 
Poichc i vicini a te punir son lenti, 
Muovansi la Capraja e la Gorgona 
E faccian siepe ad Arno in su la foce 
Si che egli annieghi in te ogni persona ! " 

Not a very christian wish, Dante ! But between 
Florence and Pisa there was no love lost. 

Can any one explain the iron pin and pendent 
chain with the legend " Alia giornata" on the 
wall of the Lanfreducci Palace ? Did it imply a 
daily victim ? Was the " marble city " after all 
nothing better than a shambles ? 

In the town of Leghorn we looked into a Jewish 
synagogue; had I not been told, I might have 
thought it an exchange. Numbers were present, 
but all in hats or turbans, and talking aloud. 


The Florentines say that the late flood here 
might have been avoided, with all its ravages, had 
Fossombroni's advice, reiterated in testamentary 
papers, been followed. He foretold all these conse- 
quences in case they did not take heed to certain 
precautions in the system of draining, which has 
long been going on in the Val di Chiana. The 
plan recommended by the late prime minister was 
a " colmata," producing an effect similar to what 
they call " wharping" in Lincolnshire. A bog is 
first dammed up, and then a torrent from the hills 
charged with lime and alluvial matter is let into it ; 
this being allowed to stand for perhaps a couple of 
months, a solid deposit gradually accumulates on 
the surface of the bog ; and, by repeating the 
process, any depth of marsh may be filled up, and 
a fertile substratum for future crops obtained. 
Fossombroni in this way redeemed many thousands 
of acres from sterility and malaria: but patience 
was needed, and watchfulness against sundry 
awkward possibilities to be counteracted by a con- 
tinual measuring of the channels and also of the 
river's speed. To say that I thoroughly under- 
stand so difficult a subject were absurd ; indeed I 
can't find any body who does (note [b]) ; but one 



thing all are agreed in; as soon as Fossombroni 
was dead, the Grand Duke pushed forward a 
hobby of his own — a big canal, which was to do the 
work much quicker. And it now seems that the 
Arno was sluiced too rapidly for safety ; a tremen- 
dous thunderstorm, coming on the back of a week's 
previous rain, coincided with the removal of certain 
important dykes, and Florence was visited at once 
by a treble measure of water above her bridges. 
" Hinc illae lacrymae." 

The damage to property is now nearly one fourth 
made good, by great exertions ; but six persons 
have been drowned. 

All classes have done their best in aid of the 
general distress ; the sovereign has worked hardest 
of all, superintending in person the distribution of 
bread, wine, coals, &c, among the poorer families. 
Subscription lists at the bankers are filling, charity 
balls and concerts have been given in every direc- 
tion ; the troops have been picketted in bands to 
labour at removing the mud, and Florence is 
beginning to look like itself again. But for the 
space of a fortnight the aspect of things was 
dolorous. The pretty suspension bridge went like 
a snapped thread; one-fifth of the habitable city 

HOME. 67 

was sloughed with mud several feet deep, pave- 
ments were lifted, walls laid flat, pipes choked, 
shops gutted, sills dashed in, pictures and statues 
went to Numa and Aucus; the Cascine became 
another marsh; hares and pheasants caught cold 
and died ; and, but for what mortals call good luck, 
the Ponte Vecchio, one of the chiefest ornaments 
of Florence, and immensely important as a thorough- 
fare, would have been carried away. I saw the 
wave within two feet of the crown of the central 
arch ; had the tide surmounted that brief interval, 
the entire structure, shops and all, would have 


December 4. 

After a week's wandering through Etruscan cities, 
and among Apennine water-falls, here are the walls of 
old Rome, the Tiber and its bridges, the Coliseum and 
St. Peter's. We have had a first look, and that is 
all as yet, but though only a look, it has opened 
another world of ideas which no engraved plate or 
pictured volume ever woke before. 


There could not l>c a better introduction to the 
city of the Cffisars, than the road which winds for 
two hundred miles through ancient Etruria and 
the darkly wooded Umbrian plains. I marked 
nothing of special note before reaching Arezzo, 
except the view of Florence from the pass of San 
Donate ; but that farewell view was wondrous fair. 

Arezzo is a pretty town enough, richer in records 
of the middle ages than in any relics of high an- 
tiquity. In the cathedral is the tomb of the fight- 
ing Bishop of Petramala, worked after designs by 
Giotto : not to admire some of the groups is impos- 
sible, but there are too many details followed out ; 
I should like it better if it were simpler. In the 
Badia Church we saw a " perspective cupola," the 
first that ever blessed my eyes ; here is ingenuity, 
and a good deal of effect : but it was a silly fancy 
to practise an ocular deception in the swelling 
dome, where all ought to be solemn and majestic. 
What so unsophisticated as the blue vault of 
heaven, and why should its architectural emblem 
be otherwise? 

Arezzo contains the house where Petrarch was 
born — "rara avis in terris;" also a capital inn, 
itself as uncommon as a black swan in these parts. 


Cortona may very likely be the oldest city in 
Italy : it is supposed anterior to Troy. I am 
tempted to quote, but the name of Dardanus's 
town may be found in the, 7th book of the iEneid. 
Corytus, it seems, was a son of Janus, and gave 
his name to the city. Here scaling the hill in one 
of the country cars, we found on the summit a 
noble range of Etruscan walls. The blocks are 
more massive than at Fiesolfc, and the lines of 
masonry extend further : a modern superstructure 
mostly rests upon them, but the old thing, without 
mortar, without bands of iron, pin, or buttress, will 
probably outlast all that stands upon it or beside it. 
These blocks may fairly be termed eloquent, but in 
the town are other not less speaking attractions. 
The museum is rich in bronzes, of course from the 
rifled tombs of Etruria. What a stately nation 
was this! They had newly got out a massive, 
circular ornament, as big as an eight-day clock, and 
at the first glance not unlike one : but the learned 
curator of the antiquities does not as yet hazard a 
guess as to what this may have been ; probably 
some sacred vessel. 

As to works of art of a later date, the town is 
peopled with the creations of Beato Angelico da 

r i\ 


Fieaoli: the sweetness of the countenances por- 
trayed by this frate, who never did anything for 
money, delights every soul ; it is like a vision of 
angels on varnished woojl. The rich old fancy of 
gold leaf ornament harmonises admirably in his 
paintings. Among those we looked at, an " Annun- 
ciation " is perhaps the best. Cigotfs picture of the 
" Miracolo," representing a heretic converted by 
the devotion of St. Antony's mule, is at once a 
marvellous work of art and an ill-chosen subject. 
Why not take a true story from Scripture, as 
Balaam's ass? Luca Signoretti's painting of the 
dead Christ I did not like. It is in Sta. Margherita, 
a convent which crowns the highest point of the 
rock: this building is beautiful Gothic, with a 
wheel-window of exquisite workmanship. They 
showed us in the cathedral a large sarcophagus of 
white marble, bearing on one side a battle in bold 
relievo. This, from having been found on the 
plain of Trasimene below, has been thought to be 
that of Flaininius : it lacks, however, an inscription. 
Descending from the height on which Cortona is 
built, we took at a foot's pace the road which winds 
through the pass once so fatal to Consular Rome. 
The wild lake lay on our right, with a beautiful 


castellated promontory jutting out for half a mile 
on its bosom. To every reader of Mr. Hobhouse's 
"Notes" the scene is as familiar as an accurate 
description can render it. The marvel is, how 
Flaminius was beguiled into entering such a trap. 
He knew that Hannibal lay hereabouts, and if he 
was acquainted, as he surely must have been, with 
the nature of ground so near his camp at Arezzo, 
how could he suppose the wily Carthaginian would 
omit to line with his troops the jaws of such a pass? 
Livy ascribes all his wayward conduct at this time 
to rashness of personal character, goaded by ambi- 
tion, and blinded by political intrigues. But Livy 
is a romancer. The act was one of deliberate 
madness in any commander. Had the catastrophe 
which ensued occurred in the times of feudal 
chivalry, one would presume that some fatal pledge 
had been given, binding him to accept battle at all 
odds when offered by the Carthaginian. 

From the moment the Roman legions had 
entered the pass, Hannibal had the game in his 
own hands. 

I made a rapid sketch of the lake and shore with 
Borghetto, and another more leisurely of " Hanni- 
bal's Tower : " this latter is a massive grey ruin, 

F 4 

72 jouiiNAL KEirr in italy. 

matted with ivy and brambles crawling over a 
window of red tufo. 

Our next Etruscan capital was Perugia, second 
only to Cortona in antiquity. Nothing under a 
visit of a week could do justice to all which this 
city contains worthy of note. Its site is almost 
Alpine : oxen are needed in addition to your own 
team to climb the hill, towards the summit of 
which the ranges of masonry rise, tier above tier, 
a gigantic stair in the rock. The Apennines here 
are capped with fields of snow, and when a breeze 
springs up in that direction you feel as if iced 
water were dashed in your face. We were glad to 
huddle on all our wraps, yet a few miles below 
we had left a burning glebe and panting herds- 

Here are above a score of gorgeous churches, 
where the pictures of Pietro vie with the stained 
glass in the oriel windows. This master's best 
frescoes cover a vault in the Sala del Cambio. 
The church of S. Pietro Martini contains his 
glorious altar-piece, a Madonna and child, with 
two angels hovering on either side: and he has 
left along with Sasso Ferrato some exquisite busts 
of saints in S. P. dei Casinensi. 


In the Cathedral we saw Baroccio's masterpiece, 
a " Deposition from the Cross," If it be true that 
the artist was undergoing the agonies of poison 
when he painted it, then the picture furnishes 
another proof that our latent powers are more 
dependent for their development on some impulse 
of spirit, than on any condition of body. Tre- 
mendous energies are evinced in the work: the 
face of one of the Marys all drowned in tears 
dwelt long on my vision after quitting the spot. 
The French stole this for the Louvre ; afterwards 
the Pope seized it for the Vatican : I don't know 
how His Holiness was induced to refund. Who- 
ever visits the " Casinensi " should ask the monk to 
lead him to a balcony behind the tribune; the 
prospect from it embodies the grander features of 
Italian landscape : the valley of the Tiber is seen 
as far as Assisi, and dark lines of mountains fill 
up the back ground. 

San Domenico is a very rich church, but its 
chief ornament is the monument of Benedict XI. 
by Giovanni di Pisa ; a chaste and touching per- 
formance, far more pleasing than the warlike 
relievos on Guido Tarlati's tomb at Arezzo. Two 


angels are drawing aside the curtains of the bier, 
so as to show the recumbent corpse within. 

We got a sight of Raffiaelle's " Staffa Madonna," 
in the Connestabili's Palace belonging to that 
family — a picture of some ten inches high : the 
Virgin is reading, and the child looking over the 
book. I know of no production of his resembling 
it ; if Raffaelle really did this thing before he was 
nineteen, great as were his subsequent achieve- 
ments his early promise was even greater. 

An English lady is now residing abroad who 
bids fair to effect a new tera in the destinies of 
subjects by the old masters : her copies ex- 
ecuted in water-colours will perpetuate, in the con- 
dition in which wc now see them, many fine 
paintings which can hardly withstand uninjured 
another ten years' wear. Miss Chawner is, I be- 
lieve, self-taught, and does not consider herself as 
possessed of the professional knowledge which 
many dilettanti have in the art ; but in what she 
produces with brush and pallet she surpasses all 
who have hitherto essayed to repeat the old mas- 
ters. With Raffaelle, with Correggio, with Titian, 
her success is marvellous ; the " ritratto " being a 
fac-simile as to resemblance, and giving the effect 


of the dead look of an old painting, which copies 
in oils never do until themselves cracked and 
dusty. Her method excludes all use of body- 
colour ; but when the picture is finished, a little 
varnish is applied for preservation. 


is graven on the fine old arch of this city : an 
Etruscan gateway and a Roman inscription ! not a 
bad specimen of the monopolising system of the 
great plagiarist Augustus. He had the grace, 
however, to leave untouched the blocks, which 
indeed were too heavy to be moved without 
difficulty. Here, as at Cortona, the masonry is 
simply the travertine masses squared and fitted 
without band or cement. 

We left Perugia with regret, our only conso- 
lation being that we also left an incurably smoky 
chimney in our sitting-room at the inn. I had 
heard of the famous excavations in the neighbour- 
hood, and that the cemetery to which they belong 
is supposed to have matched in its plan and extent 
the ancient city itself. A mile or two on this side 
of the gates we came upon the site. Had I not 
known that Colizzi had been here burrowing, I 


might almost have taken our guide for a magi- 
cian, or one of the genii in the old fables, as he 
led the way over some broken ground not unlike 
a rabbit-warren. "Di qui Signora;" we turned 
the edge of a bank, and a flight of steps appeared 
with the red earth trenched and laid open round 
it. Now we are down in a twinkling : that shady 
cavern seems squared like a chamber in the rock ; 
one leaf remains of the two which once formed a 
folding-door at its entrance ; the guide is turning 
it back on its pivot, let us step in. What a singu- 
lar apartment ! A clean floor, two large stone 
sarcophagi, a broken urn, pendent lamps, and a 
mimic genius swinging from the roof by a bronze 
thread. That stern countenance facing the portal 
can be no other than Medusa. Our guide says all 
this is an Etruscan tomb, and he is right : some 
scores more lie in the same state around us, and 
probably many hundreds which have not yet been 
re-opened. Colizzi has removed the figured "tazzc," 
the " focolari," bronze ornaments, and jewels in 
solid gold — but the rest, just as it now appears, 
was sealed up after dedication some three thousand 
years ago. 

Solemn thoughts rush on the mind when con- 


templating such a chamber, " empty, swept and 
garnished," but still the consecrated resting-place 
of the dead; where piety and affection paid the 
last and dearest tribute to departed heroism and 
worth. Truly, the "fungar inani munere" be- 
speaks a long and deeply rooted instinct. Deem 
not slightingly of a race of whom nought save this 
is left. Egypt has her pyramids, Etruria her 
chambers in the rock; both were tombs, to 
shelter the ashes of kindred, and haply one day to 
tell posterity of their rites and customs. This 
nation culminated in fame and earthly glory, 
before imperial Rome, with her senate and people, 
was heard of. If the visitor likes to dip his hand 
in where that ponderous stone lid has been lifted, 
he may touch the bones of departed chiefs and 
rulers. But beware of the mystic genius overhead, 
all you who harbour thoughts of covetousness or 
pride : he is the guardian of the tomb. 

Scholars have perused the following passage in 
the original of Dionysius of Halicarnassus. The 
Italian version seems aptest now. 

"Gli Etruschi furono arrestati nel corso della 
loro prosperity dalF ira degli Dei, che li oppresse 
con una spaventosa sterilita cagionata da una siccita 


senza esempio, che desol6 le famiglie, devastA le 
campagne, distrusse i bestiami, e fece pcrfino dis- 
seccare le sorgenti delle acque. Le genti in queste 
deplorabili estremit& si moriano di terribili malattie, 
perchfc la nazione, colpita da terrore, invi6 all* 
oracolo, consultandolo sui mezzi di disarmare lo 
sdegno degli Dei. Ela risposta fu, di doverc a 
Giove, ad Apollo, ed ai Cabin offerire la decima 
parte di quanto aveano di piii prezioso. 

" Questo essi si fecero : ma V oracolo si dichiaro 
meglio, che esigeva la decima parte degli uomini ! 
A questo annunzio funesto la costernazione si 
sparse in tutti. Ognuno temette a se medesimo, e 
per quanto avea piii a cuorePesecuzione delP oracolo. 
In poco tempo gli amici piii intimi si allontanarono 
dagli amici, i parenti dai parenti ; le case furono 
abbandonate ; le cittit deserte ; tutti presero la fuga. 
Si ritirarono in Grecia, e cosl privi d'ogni soccorso 
perdettero i loro possedimenti : e quell' impero, 
colpito nella sorgente delle sue forze, cio& privo 
della sua populazione, miseramente ruin6, n& piii 
potette riaversi." 

So says the Greek historian. This Etruria had 
twelve kingdoms, with twelve capital cities and 
twelve mighty kings. Porsenna, king of Clusium, 


who curbed and humbled Rome, was one. Each 
capital had its province of subordinate townships, 
its senate, and its army. But what nation could 
endure that worshipped false gods, and consulted 
the oracles of devils ! 

True, Rome had done so already for many cen- 
turies. But, may we not say that Rome's case is 
peculiar ; seeing that her gigantic career had been 
traced out in the chart of prophecy ages before, 
and the final overthrow of her colossal strength 
predicted in the inspired Word ? 

Shortly after this we quitted Etruria, and en- 
tered Umbria by the bridge of San Giovanni over 
the Tiber. The stream here was prettily fringed, 
and its waters were yellow already. We stopped 
at a majestic church, " Sta. Maria degli Angeli." 
Here is St. Francis's Gothic Chapel, cell of 
penance, garden of now thornless roses, and many 
other wondrous things. The church contains 
Ovcrbcck's picture of the Saint's Vision. Surely 
this German is the greatest living painter after the 
all-talented Vernet. We were eager to get up to 
Assisi on the hill, and so did not tarry very long 
below. Arrived, and past the double doorway of 
the " Sacro Convento," after regarding the noblest 


wheel-window in Italy, we found there were three 
temples, built one over another, the lowest being 
subterranean. The upper church is pure Gothic, 
that is, about as pure as you will find in Italy. 
It is still rich with the frescoes of Cimabue and 
Giotto, but owing to the bad repair in which the 
roof is kept they are perishing rapidly. I felt 
vexed at this negligence in so wealthy a society. 
While we were pacing the nave, something fell 
from the roof: on stooping to pick up what I 
supposed to be a piece of delicate iron tracery, I 
found it was a scorpion ; he had been killed by 
dropping perhaps sixty feet on the pavement, 
within a few paces of where we stood. Had he lit 
upon one of us we should have been severely stung. 
The middle church is a glorious structure for those 
who love the profound shade caused by deep-groined 
vaults and low arches ; but the style of its embel- 
lishments is rather adapted to an oriental mosque 
than a Christian church. The quadrilateral vault 
with the Giotto's is very curious and interesting; 
I only regretted that the light which illumined it 
was so feeble. Here is the enthusiastic career of 
St. Francis depicted under divers allegories. Every 
one has heard or read of these. The group sym- 


bolizing his vow of absolute poverty I thought 
the best done, as it is the most strikingly conceived. 
" Poverty" is a woman standing among thorns, and 
Christ gives away the bride. Here it is well known 
that Dante helped him, whose fertile brain was 
perhaps never equalled in this line, save by our 
Bunyan. The lower church is more impressive 
by far ; it is hewn out in the native rock, all round 
the block of travertine, in which the saint's body 
was found. This was the foundation, and over it 
all the rest of the convent was raised. Here lie 
Francis's remains, shielded by a shrine of alabaster 
and gold ; lamps burn before the altar continually. 
Of the esteem in which his memory is held the 
following may give an idea. I observed two arms 
crossed, worked in gold, on the folding-doors of 
the shrine ; I asked for whose they were meant, 
and was told by the frate that one was an arm of 
St. Francis, the other an arm of Christ. " Do you 
then put them as equals thus on the door ? " He 
replied, " E come Cristo, ma non ugualc ; " and 
then added, " II servo fedele e il suo Signore," 
pointing I think to a scripture where it is said, 
" Where I am there shall also my servant be." 
Assisi was Francis's birthplace; his family thought 



him mad because he stripped himself of every thing, 
giving away even the garment off his back to the 
poor; his father made strenuous efforts to have 
him locked up. All his followers take the vows of 
poverty, obedience, and chastity, but they do not 
always keep the first-mentioned. This " Sacro 
Convento " is enormously wealthy. 

After Assisi the country grew softer and richly 
wooded. From Foligno to Spoleto is an undulating 
forest of oak trees ; we saw it in all the golden and 
purple glory of a prolonged autumn. Clitumnus, 
limpid as May dew, reminded me of the Bran some 
miles above Dunkeld. The black marble temple is 
exquisite, but, the learned say, not of high antiquity. 

At Terni we halted five hours, and drove 
through scenery almost Swiss in character, to sec 
the Falls of tlie Velino. At the upper fall, we were 
astonished, delighted, and plentifully besprinkled. 
Words cannot describe the grandeur of this scene : 
the river throws itself three hundred feet at a leap! 
We have sundry fine waterfalls in Britain, — Cirira 
Linn is perhaps the finest; — but they are babies 
compared to this. The lower fall is more beautiful, 
pictorially : none of the sketches much resemble 

ROME. 83 

After Terni, the road to Rome becomes flatter, 
and we were soon wholly surrounded by a desolate 
campagna. One object broke the monotony of the 
last day's drive : this was Soracte, a jagged pyra- 
mid, darting upward from the undulating plain 
into a soft grey sky. As we drew near the city of 
the Caesars, I felt glad that the cockney accompani- 
ments of farms and casinos were wanting. We 
turned a sandstone hillock, and suddenly Rome was 
before us ! Under a horizontal bar of azure cloud, 
stretching along the western sky, lay Michael 
Angclo's dome, and the formal lines of the Vati- 
can. Then came the Tiber, and " Pons Milvius," 
and then we entered the city by the Flaminian gate. 

Rome, 21st December. 
After all, the finest thing here is the old Forum. 
There is a pleasure in stepping the ground and 
pondering the associations which it recalls, greater, 
I confess, to me than in visiting the walls of any 
one particular ruin. A compass of a few acres 
here between Titus's arch and the capitol, com- 
prises the most beautiful objects left from the 
ravage of Imperial Rome : the grandest mass lies 
a little farther eastward ; but viewing the entire 

a -2 


plot, from the Coliseum's ring to the Tower of 
the Senator, the mind conceives the idea of one 
vast amphitheatre, bounded by gigantic landmarks, 
and exhibiting noble forms arranged for scenic 
effect. Here, the Dacian captives look sadly 
down from the attic of Constantine's arch : here 
that of Septimius spans the ancient footway below, 
while above a street of modern Rome runs nearly 
on a level with the frieze. Exquisite marble 
columns, here a single shaft, there a group, shoot 
up from amidst fallen chapiters and grass-grown 
blocks : and the Basilica of Constantine, once lined 
with Parian stone, and panelled with cedar and 
ivory, has thrown open its bosom to the winds, and 
gathers in the deep coffers of its chambers the 
driving dust and chaff, while the sparrow and the 
linnet nestle in the spring of the arches. 

None of these mouldering masses is older than 
the Emperors : not a block was laid by Etruscan 
Kings; not an arch or pillar tells of the stout 
Republic : but when you turn again by the Appian 
way and pace the Forum, old Home's genius is 
present : it is no longer a bare plot of ground with 
a hollow ruin on one side, and a priest-ridden city 
on the other. It is once more the heart of majestic 

ROME. 85 

Rome, orators are in the rostra, bribeless tribunes 
are pleading for the people, — surely it was but 
yesterday that Brutus showed a bloody dagger 
wrenched from the dead body of Lucretia, and 
devoted the house of Tarquin to destruction. 

Strange to say, its modern appellation is the 
same which Virgil assigns it in Evander's day, 
(iEneid, viii. 360.) when the Trojan leader passed 
up the Tiber — " Campo Vaccino " marking the 
precise spot : so that the orators have been both 
preceded and followed by the lowing kine. Was 
Livy playing the wag with natural history when 
he recorded so sententiously his " Bos locutus ? " 

Quit the Forum, and old Rome is gone : a mo- 
dern thing has succeeded ; a park of churches, a 
metropolis of mosque-like domes and belfries. 
Where are the Seven Hills, once clustering with 
the palaces and gardens, the streets and towers of 
Rome? Many arc stripped and bare, save for 
shapeless brick and crumbling tufo; others arc 
travestied. Pass to the Tarpeian and you may 
note their outline — the ground plan of the city 
whose arms encircled and smote the world. Plant- 
ing your foot on the edge of a quiet gar- 
den, meet scene for musing, the Traitor's Leap is 

G 3 


on your left, and the seat of the earliest settlement 
faces you. Aye, yon is the Palatine, now cum- 
bered with the bones of the Caesars' palaces : the 
Aventine a little to the right, crowned by convents : 
away on the left is the Coelian; and wheeling 
round, the Esquiline and Quirinal, with the Viminal 
crouching between them. The turf which your 
foot presses is part of the Capitoline. Modern 
Rome has covered the Vatican, and the fortress of 
Janicvlum has given place to a palace and gardens. 
The Pincian is still, as of old, " collis hortulorum." 
Yon shadowy line, dotted here and there with a 
buttress, is the Sacred Wall: its massive proportions 
have fought well with time. Not so Rome's 
Bridges; Pons Milvius has softened down into 
" Ponte Molle," a new structure on the old foun- 
dations on the Flaminian way. For Pons JElius 
you have " Ponte Saint Angelo," this stands almost 
as Hadrian left it, and leads to his enormous Mau- 
soleum. Pons Vaticanus is gone. Pons Palatinus 
is in the case of the famous pocket-knife, — an heir- 
loom for countless generations, but whose blade 
and handle had both of them been many times 
renewed; it has been so often " restored" that one 
may fairly doubt whether it retains a single origi- 

ROME. 87 

nal block. From the site of Pons Janiculensis, now 
" Ponte Sisto," there is a very pretty view at sun- 
rise of an interesting part of the river including 
Pons Fabricius lower down. The most famous of 
all historically, " Pons Sublicius," now lies as low 
as it did on the day when Codes swam the river. 
A bit of the old pile is visible at low tides, but 
soon hides itself again as if ashamed of the present 

Tiber himself is as yellow as a loamy clay can 
make him, and still keeps up his reputation for 
flooding the anti-Etruscan shore. 

The Coliseum, viewed as an abstract mass, tells 
of the masters of the world and lowers the present 
generation to the grade of pigmies. The stupen- 
dous outline of its perpendicular, the vast sweep 
of its horizontal curves, tier above tier a hundred 
and fifty feet overhead, the bold ring-lines of the 
ellipse which clip the area within, are majestic and 
beautiful. Sunlight and moonlight alike suit this 
extraordinary pile : by day its colours are richer, 
but the general effect is grander towards midnight. 
The moon's ray has a harmonising power. Edges 
of masonry soften, harsh tints are mellowed down, 
arches transmit a silvery light, buttresses throw a 

o 4 


deeper shadow — the thing which at noon had a 
matter of fact appearance puts on the guise of ro- 
mance, and becomes at once dream-like and real, 
a dumb ruin and a speaking portent. What a tale 
it would tell could the stone now cry out of the 
wall ! The desperate struggles of the broken- 
hearted Gaulish captive ; the teeth and talons of the 
starved lion fleshed in Christian gore; Trajan 
smiling while Ignatius is rent limb from limb ; a 
complacent senate, Roman ladies applauding, even 
vestal virgins looking on unruffled, the while a mad 
populace bellows forth its joy and demands fresh 
hecatombs to immolate to Moloch ! Had it been an 
hospital, an academy, a gymnasium, it were a duty 
and privilege to cherish it and rear its attic again. 
But, an amphitheatre, — the bloodiest shambles in 
the known world, a homage from imperial pride to 
popular fury and licence! — God's curse has been 
on it from the first. Penitence may avail, if ought 
on earth can, towards cancelling past offences : the 
ground is consecrated now, chapels arc ordered, 
and a preaching-cross reared in the midst. May the 
penitence be genuine ! 

Titus's Arch has the advantage of delicate dimen- 
sions, as nearly allied to beauty as the colossal 

ROME. 89 

mould of its neighbour is to the sublime. Its 
choice treasure is the " relievo " on a wainscot 
within, representing the procession which bears the 
spoils of the Temple of Jerusalem, and meant to 
complete the subject of Titus's Triumph on the 
opposite panel. This bas-relief is the only au- 
thority extant, besides the description given in 
Exodus, for the forms of the sacred vessels. The 
most distinct now are the two silver trumpets and 
the seven-branched candlestick. Under this arch 
no Jew will pass. They will not face a record, by 
the hand of the spoiler, of God's accomplished 
wrath against the people of his covenant, and the 
city and temple where he had set his name ! 

The Arch of Drusus in another style pleases me 
very much. It is more ancient than the others, and 
has a triangular pediment, which is always grace- 

Cecilia MctellcCs Tomb must be allowed to be 
intrinsically ugly ; what connection is there 
between a huge cylinder enclosing a brick cone, 
and the rites or memory of the dead ? Sepulchral 
monuments should surely wear the prestige of 
hope and reverence, as in the " starry pointing" 
pyramids of Egypt ; but with the exception of that 


of Caius Cestius, there is not a single pyramid in 
Rome. Even in the modern Christian churches 
the total absence of the spire is painfully evident 
here: clusters of domes there are, and forests of 
little belfries, but not the soaring spire, type of a 
blessed resurrection. 

The outer wall of Metella's Tower presents 
curved blocks and lozenges of travertine, of Cyclo- 
pean dimensions, dovetailed in with the art of the 
cabinet-maker. Yet there is a breach in the solid 
crust, as if ordnance had been battering. 

The remains of Trajan's Forum are a heavy, 
sunken parallelogram ; admire it who will. The 
pillar indeed is gorgeous; but the Romans have 
hoisted St. Peter's statue to the perilous elevation 
of its capital. Trajan certainly has not benefited 
much ; he never saw this column reared to him by 
the S. P. Q. R. ; and now his effigy is displaced from 
its summit, while the fisherman is promoted over 
all his sculptured triumphs. The relievos, en- 
crusting the entire shaft in an endless spiral, must 
have cost a world of patience to make them out : I 
tried for ten minutes, and was rewarded with a 
murderous pain in the back of my neck. 

Egeria's Fountain, if hers it be, still flows pure 

ROME. 91 

and sparkling, within a dilapidated grotto, scooped 
out amid the greenest solitude of the Campagna. 
I am sorry to say those useful creatures the cows 
will make the place in a sad mess when they come 
trooping to drink of the spring. I tried a draught 
however, and found it delicious. Over the jet 
reclines a mutilated figure which puzzled the anti- 
quaries. All around, the scenery is wild and fair. 
Monte Cavi and the Albano hills rise behind ; in 
the foreground stands a grove with " shadows 
brown" that would have suited Numa, and the 
vast expanse of the Campagna midway is varied 
by broken piers of the Claudian Emissary striding 
at intervals like a disabled giant. Six miles of 
this aqueduct now remain in possession of a brown 
desert: what must the scene have been when its 
myriads of arches were perfect, and the water was 
distributed over five hundred square miles of a 
richly cultivated plain ! 

Who has not perused descriptions and engravings 
of Agrvppcis Pantlteon? yet who ever looked for 
the first time on the original but was astonished at 
the meanness of their previous conceptions ! Cin- 
derella, returning to dust and rags after her fairy 
equipments at the court ball, was not more oddly 


situated than is this matchless building. The 
dirtiest market of Rome surrounds with vegetable 
filth the greater part of its exterior basement : here 
on the steps " maccheroni " squabble, and mule- 
drivers play at " mora," while the old women wash 
their lettuces, and the young ones " make eyes " at 
the passers by. The dome is buried amid a chaos 
of jostling roofs and gables ; you must go at least 
as far as the Pincian to get a fair peep at it. But 
the fagade, though black and grimed, looks boldly 
forth, like an honest man through the clouds of 
adversity. Agrippa's inscription, legible on the 
frieze, has not operated to warn off marauders: 
popes have been as mischievously busy as school- 
boys who find themselves in an orchard. The 
bronze plates from the interior vault arc gone, 
to make the " Baldacchino " in St. Peter's, and I 
don't know how much beside. The castmakers 
are not less active in their way : the bases and 
capitals of these columns are of marble, while their 
shafts of elephantine strength are granite ; the 
former are marked with the adhesive plaster used 
by the copyist. Well that those elephant legs 
stand firm, and can neither be moved nor melted ! 
I thought the impression of space conveyed as you 

ROME. 93 

stand within "more striking even than in St. Peter's. 
The rotunda's form is that of a truncated spheroid, 
the slice taken off above leaving by its section the 
aperture through which the silent heavens look 
down on the pavement below. In a little chapel 
on the left as you enter sleeps " Raffaclle Sanzio 
d' Urbino." Those who love a contrast may pass 
from the Pantheon to Vesta's Temple, close on the 
Tiber; a pretty toy, which has no fault but its 
modern conical lid, resembling the cap of a chimney, 
the cover of a sugar basin, or the hat of a Chinese 
mandarin, — whichever you prefer. 

We have seen one Etruscan labour here — the 
Mamertine Prisons. In his " Catiline," Sallust 
describes the subterranean " locus in carccrc." He 
says of the dungeon, " Incultu, tenebris, odore foeda 
atque terribilis ejus facies est." The " camera in- 
super" was no doubt the roof. Part of this is 
really as old as the Tarquins. Church tradition 
says the apostles Peter and Paul were held in 
durance here, and our guide pointed to where the 
water rose miraculously that baptism might be 
administered to a convert gained by preaching in 
bonds. I thought how surprised the good man 
would have looked had I told him, on the authority 


of the "Friends," that there was no such need, 
" water baptism " being a carnal error. The hole 
in the dungeon's roof, through which prisoners 
were formerly let down is now filled up, and you 
descend in a less ominous fashion by a side-door 
from the chapel which is built overhead. 

The Fountains are Home's guardian angels : they 
burst out in every piazza, and well-nigh at every 
street head, amid sculptured figures and emblems, 
and the delicious water falls into capacious basins 
of granite. The " rinfrescante " agitation of the air 
produced by these jets, probably saves the city from 
the encroachment of malaria. 

I think that of Trevi, despite all criticisms, in- 
comparably the noblest. The two in the Piazza of 
St. Peter's are, however, very beautiful and 

The palaces of English noblemen, in our metro- 
polis, are mostly ordinary looking buildings as to 
fashion and dimensions externally, but splendidly- 
furnished on a gigantic scale of comfort within. A 
Roman " palazzo " is the opposite of all this. Ar- 
chitecturally grand in its exterior, but having no 
comfort, and little of real splendour, save in one 
" sala " within. The staircase is wide, but un- 

HOME. 95 

adorned : the Hall of Canopy, with probably a fine 
fresco overhead, is empty, unwashed, and ill-cared 
for. It is true, a better economy prevails in the 
mansions tenanted by some of the cardinals, whose 
admirable management of a very moderate income 
deserves high praise. Walk down the Corso or 
across certain piazzas, and you will say, " these are 
indeed stately residences : " enter the arched gate- 
way, ascend the stone flight, and follow the domes- 
tic who acts as guide through the long suite of 
apartments, grand but comfortless, and you will 
wonder whether the family ever live here at all. 
All seems sacrificed to display, and little or nothing 
reserved for personal enjoyment. In England we 
have perhaps gone into the other extreme: our 
noble mansions can few of them be said to adorn 
the metropolis: architectural beauty they have 
none; the grandeur of massive proportions they 
rarely exhibit. Devonshire House, or Norfolk House, 
neither of them counts above a dozen windows in 
the front : in Italy you may reckon twenty, even 
thirty. The Barberini is an enormous pile : the 
JDoria appears immeasurable : the only structure 
I can remember in London worth naming for ex- 
ternal effect is Northumberland House. Observe 


the palaces of the Colonna, Corsini, Borghese, and 
others here, and you are fain to confess that the 
nation of " haughty shopkeepers " have not hither- 
to ventured far in the way of embellishing for the 
public. I have only spoken here of those of Rome, 
but the Strozzi and Pitti in Florence are even 
more majestic: the latter is now the sovereign's 
residence, but was built by Lucas Pitti for himself 
in the middle ages. It is true, however, that this 
pile ruined him. 

The display of pictures in the private galleries 
here is prodigious, but quantity has mostly been 
preferred to quality : every wainscot is crowded, 
sometimes a door is covered. 

The Sciarra has perhaps the choicest collection : 
here is Claude's glorious sunset ; Leonardo da Vinci's 
" Vanity and Modesty ; " a " Holy Family " by 
Fra Bartohmeo ; and one of N. Poussin's best land- 

In the Casino of the BospigJiosi is Guido's 
beautiful fresco of "Aurora and Sol's Chariot." 
Looking at this reculls the imagery of Ovid or 
Virgil : the Hours are charmingly depicted. 
Below, Earth appears, in a lovely sea-piece, the 

deep purple tint of Italy lying* on the mountains 
and the ocean. 

The Doria has Salvator Bosa's " Belisario " land- 
scape, and two stupendous Claudes; one of them 
is the well-known scene with figures dancing in 
the foreground. If this really represents " a mill 
near Athens," Greece must be a marvellously fine 

The Colonna has a hall paved, pillared and 
wainscotted with rich marbles : this is hardly fair 
by the paintings, some of which arc ornament 
sufficient for any room. Here is Guercino's " Mar- 
tyrdom of St. Catherine." 

In a dusty room of the Barberini hangs Beatrice 
Cenci's portrait. No artist is allowed to sit before 
it, even with a pencil and board, and all the hide- 
ous daubs which sell as " copies " throughout 
England are drawn and coloured after the impres- 
sions of memory. Now it is true the picture does 
leave a very strong impression on the mind, but 
still these "copies" bear no resemblance to the 
original. Even the tint of her dishevelled hair is 
never well hit off: but the tremulous anguish of 
the mouth, the eyelids swoln with weeping, the 
look she casts back as led to her execution — who 



will ever render these again as Guido has portrayed 
them? No written poetry, not even Shelley's, 
comes up to the spell of this speaking face, where 
the blight of early and remediless sorrow has 
dimmed a countenance whose natural cast was 
happy and cheerful. If it be true that Guido 
painted this, why has he left nothing else equal to 
it ? His Cleopatras, Helens, &c, are poor creatures ; 
all are clad in blue, all cast up their eyes and ex- 
pose their bosoms ; but this thing in its modest 
hood and sombre tints, was a study from the house 
of woe. 

In the Spada Palace stands " Pompcy's statua ; " 
colossal, stern, one arm extended, one hand grasp- 
ing a globe. It noways resembles in its features 
the well-known busts of Augustus, nor any other 
bust I ever saw. 

Here is Dido stretched on the funeral pyre: 
a sword transfixes the unhappy lady, like a skewer 
through a pigeon. Any one who is curious about 
Guercino and his better half may find their portraits 
in the crowd round poor Dido. How little Guido 
meditated some of his productions! This thing 
has no soul in it, though well drawn and gorgeously 

HOME. 99 

In the Farnesina arc Sodoma'a frescoes : one is 
of exceeding beauty, "Alexander's nuptials." Rox- 
ana is the beau ideal of a "blooming Eastern 
bride." One of the little cupids is pulling off her 
slipper. Sodoma was the Goldsmith of painters; 
he did every thing happily. 

The Vatican possesses a world of treasures in its 
museums and halls. It is another Rome in itself. 

In the Sistine Chapel you may see the pope: 
this " primus inter pares " of Christian bishops is 
an old man, with silvery hair, and of a stout habit. 
The Swiss guards in waiting, remind you that he 
is a temporal sovereign, as well as a mitred priest. 
But I thought his vest and snow-white cap less 
glaring than the silk apparel, laced cope, and red 
hat of the cardinals on either side. A morning 
here recalls a stately page in English history; 
Wolsey and his retinue, and the beautiful chapel 
of Hampton Court. 

The Sistine Chapel appears small, amidst the 
vast halls and corridors which surround it. It is, 
indeed, barely large enough to accommodate at one 
end Michael Angelo's fresco of "the Last Judg- 
ment ; " the dimensions of this awful picture being 
some sixty feet by thirty. The work is a very 

ii 2 


mingled performance. Some of the figures exhibit 
a daring originality, others are directly copied from 
the wall of the " Campo Santo " in Pisa. The at- 
titude of the Christ is precisely the same as in that 
by Orgagna. The middle of the picture is the best 
part; here the artist was not cramped, and the 
effect of his " forcshortcnings " is admirable. The 
representation of the martyrs rising before the bar 
of Christ with the instruments of their suffering, 
is solemnly conceived. S. Kartholemy carries in 
one hand the scalping-knifc, with which they 
flayed him alive, and in the other his skin; another, 
the gridiron on which he was broiled: — they appeal 
against the wicked. The upper part is crowded, 
and you can hardly distinguish the design. The 
lower compartment is disgusting, and utterly un- 
worthy of a Christian artist. Among other incon- 
gruous levities, here is Charon, I suppose out of 
compliment to Dante. But, were the entire com- 
position one worthy of M. Angelo's talents, which 
it is not, still the question would remain, "Are 
these subjects defensible in painting?" I think not; 
and the pope who wished to erase it all has my 
hearty approbation so far. 

The plafond and arched panels of the roof are 

HOME. 101 

frescoed in a very different style by the same hand. 
To my mind these are some of the noblest designs 
ever executed by him or by any man. The im- 
parting of life to Adam, and the coming forth of 
live into being at the bidding of the Almighty, arc 
inexpressibly majestic and touching. All around, 
above the cornice and running the entire length 
of the chapel, prophets and sibyls sit in solemn 

Here Raffaelle studied, and to some purpose : but 
why did he seek to conceal it ? 

The Stanze and Loggie give a better idea than 
anything else in Rome of the varied stores of this 
man's mind; the "Disputa" in the Camera della 
Segnatura is a chef-d'oeuvre. Yet I think it a pity 
that, in order to give so young a painter as Raffaelle 
" carte blanche," the works of such a master as 
Luca SignoreUi should have been displaced. A few 
compartments done by another hand would have 
imparted both pleasure and instruction ; at present 
you can only compare Raffaelle with Raffaelle. The 
arabesqued borders and cornices in the " Loggie" 
are a wonderful "jeu d'esprit." The "Trans- 
figuration" is more attractive than any of his 
other paintings. It was his last effort, and he has 

u 3 


here attempted a higher flight than elsewhere. It 
is a sublime escape from failure, for who could 
anticipate aught but failure in depicting such a 
scene? The attitudes of the figures floating in 
the air are a vast conception, and here he could 
hardly have a model to guide him : I doubt if 
Michael Angelo could have produced these. The 
lower part of the picture has perhaps been spoiled 
by Giulio Romano. Raffaelle's other works here 
can hardly be commended, seeing in what com- 
pany they are placed ; some people are in ccstacies 
with the " Foligno " Madonna, but surely this is 
anything but what one ought to conceive of the 

The Domenichino, "Communion of St. Jerome," 
hangs opposite to the " Transfiguration." This is 
perhaps a more powerful painting : the drawing is 
more true, and the "composition" better managed. 
But he had not such a difficulty to contend with 
in the nature of his subject. I heard a striking 
critique on their comparative effect from a German, 
who, with his companion, had been admiring the 
Transfiguration, and then crossing the hall, stood 
rooted for some seconds before the St. Jerome : 

HOME. 103 

A painting may be a more attractive thing than 
a statue, having the beauties of colour, whereas the 
marble embodies abstract form; but the statue is 
more purely ideal — and hence the first look at a 
chef-d'oeuvre in marble is more impressive. 

The most beautifully finished of all here is the 
Antinous, but the Belvidere Apollo is incomparably 
more grand. Majesty is the predominating ex- 
pression. The position of the head, the outstretched 
arm, the stride just taken forward, arc all subser- 
vient to this character. The mould of the features 
though faultless, has nothing in it soft or winning. 
It is not until you leave the " punto " and walk 
round the pedestal, that you arc aware how artifi- 
cially the effect has been produced. All is exagge- 
rated in the work. The just laws of anatomy are 
disregarded, the sculptor's measures falsified, to 
heighten the impression conveyed to one who en- 
ters the portal facing it. The head, after every 
allowance made for posture, is too much on the 
right shoulder ; one leg is a finger's length more 
than the other — if the marble could start to life 
in emulation of Pygmalion's bride, the archer 
would be troubled at finding that his spine was 
awry and that his left leg had outgrown his right. 

h 4 


It is true the Greeks took a similar liberty with 
the projections of lips and eyebrows in their busts ; 
but here the effect of muscular development might 
be pleaded. I was disappointed when I found that 
the perfection of sculpture is rather to produce a 
sensation, than to give a faithful model of nature. 
After all, the secret of balance has hitherto eluded 
artistical search : it would seem to be locked up in 
that of life. No statue has ever yet been cut or 
cast, which in fair proportion of parts and unaided 
by supports would stand upon its feet. 

The group of the Laocoon, with less of power 
shown in individualising, is far more touching. It 
seems all but alive in the anguish of the man and 
the pressure of the heavy serpent. The children 
struggle, but more feebly, and look up to their un- 
happy parent to help them. If you gaze long on 
this scene, you forget it is a mimic thing, the mind 
becomes oppressed, and your philosophy almost 
fails you. 

Here is Canova's baby-faced " Perseus," with a 
form worthy of the antique ; and his two " boxers," 
which are perhaps his finest productions. All 
around lie sarcophagi and slabs with Greek relievos. 
The Achilles and Penthesilca in the " Battle of the 

home. 105 

Amazons," are specimens of the " heroic," if there 
be such a style recognised in sculpture. 

Some of the statues in the Chiaramonte appeared 
to me every whit as good as these picked beauties 
in "Apollo's court." The " Minerva Medica," for 
instance, which is a draped figure, and " a wounded 
Amazon ; " it is true they are not of so polished a 

Here arc prodigiously fine things scattered about 
in halls and museums. " Titus's bath " is a por- 
phyry basin big enough for the elephant at the 
" Zoological " to give himself a souse. The mosaic 
floors from Tivoli, &c. are rude, bold things, and 
remind one of the famous pictures in children's 
spelling-books. Then there are papyri, Etruscan 
" tazze," and paintings which were ancient before 
Cimabue was born. They say the pope is vainer 
of his Etruscan museum than of everything else in 
the Vatican. 

The " Gallery of Inscriptions " deserves a morn- 
ing's perusal. The Christian slabs on one side of the 
hall face the heathen on the other. In the former 
are preserved abundance of the old symbols : the 
fish, the dove, the lamb, the olive-leaf, the mono- 
gram of Christ, &c. — but you require time to 


decypher them. Once up and down this gallery 
makes half-a-mile ; and the wainscot is mainly 
covered from floor to ceiling. 

Every one visits the Library, though no longer 
what it once was. Napoleon relieved the " Camera 
Apostolica " of some 500 of their choicest manu- 
scripts, and I doubt they never recovered a tithe. 
I was most struck with the oddities here; as 
u Joshua's History " in Greek, on a parchment 
thirty-two feet long ; in the plates, Roman soldiers 
are executing Roman manoeuvres for early Jewish 
events; " Henry VIII.'s letters to Anna Bolena;" 
those in French arc full of false concords, the 
English not much better; — " Cardinal Mai's Palimp- 
sest:" here a " Cicero de Republic^" lies snugly 
concealed under a version of St. Augustine's Com- 
mentary on the Psalms. 

They say the Vatican comprises eight royal 
staircases and above 4000 apartments ; courts and 
bystairs by dozens! Why should not the whole 
College of Cardinals live here, in brotherly amity, 
along with his holiness ? 

On Monte Cavallo the successor of the fisherman 
of Galilee has another gorgeous palace for summer 
residence. After this, to open an old treatise called 

home. 107 

Jlpdgeig rvbv ' Airoo-roXwv, and read " Silver and gold 
have I none ! " 

Castor and Pollux, whom somebody saw riding 
into Rome after the battle of Lake Regillus, are 
now become fixtures, and may be found at the 
head of the Campidoglio stairs " sub dio." The 
senator's lordly tower rises behind them : we toiled 
up this latter to get the view, which is an instruc- 
tive one. All the seven hills can be well made 
out, and modern Rome is laid down as in a chart. 
What a fine street that " Corso" is! 

The museum here is delightful, and not such an 
overgrown monster as the Vatican system. Climbing 
the stair, you may ponder " the ground- plan of old 
Rome," fished out of Remus's Temple, and of 
signal service to the antiquaries, by utterly con- 
founding some of their darling theories ; and make 
up your mind, if you can, whether a certain marble 
warrior be meant for Mars or Pyrrhus. I don't 
think it can be Pyrrhus ; it's too stout for one so 
restless : Mars is more likely ; a very hog in armour. 
Some old sarcophagi, presenting Theseus fighting 
the Amazons, and scenes from the history of 
Achilles, are more noble than any thing Roman 


Run and see the " Dying Gladiator," and don't 
look at any thing else that day in shape of sculpture, 
for you wouldn't enjoy it. I prefer this to all the 
marbles in Rome. Michael Angelo has " restored" 
the right arm and hand on which he is leaning : a 
prodigious performance, but far inferior to the 
other parts of the figure : the vehement Italian lias 
failed to give the expression of " fainting at the 
approach of death" which characterises the Greek 

The " Protomoteca" series of busts are well 
worth looking at, as illustrations of phrenology. 
Masaccio's bespeaks exquisite taste : Domenichino's 
enterprise and judgment, rarely combined. Petrarch 
seems formed, like Crichton, to excel in every 
thing. Vittcrria Colonna brought to my mind the 

" Alma real dignissima d' impero," &c. 

Elsewhere, Cavalier d' Arpino and Laureti have 
repeated Livy in fresco. Here you have the 
death-struggle between Rome and stately Veii : 
there Codes mans the bridge and stops the only 
passage for Porsena to Rome. A little farther on 
you forget all you have seen before, in peering 
over, handling, and patting the king of all bronzes, 

110MK. 109 

the Etruscan group of the she- wolf and cub-like 

The Villa Borghese is the Hyde Park of Rome. 
Here are undulating slopes, shaded walks, foun- 
tains, columns, arches, and a princely museum. In 
the hitter " (Edipw? Vase" would alone claim a 
visit ; but over the entrance of the great hall is 
CurtiuSy man and horse, taking the god-like plunge 
to save his country ! To look at this makes one's 
heart leap. 

The PamJUi Doria has yet grander scenes of 
natural beauty. You may wander here on a 
bright afternoon through time-honoured groves 
and alleys of ilex, or amid vast clumps of the 
stone-pine, and forget the crowd and glare of 
the city. We have no tree in Britain like these 
pines. When a plantation of them comes to ma- 
turity, their curling foliage interlacing on the " vive 
travi " forms another emerald meadow sloping 
overhead. Some of them reach to eighty and ninety 

The Italians say " Roma per Santita ! " and, as 
far as number of consecrated buildings goes, they 
have something to show for it; Rome contains 
above three hundred. In a city where the " church" 


is also the " state/' all offices in the latter being 
filled by cardinals and monsignori, and where the 
claim has for centuries been advanced and main- 
tained of an apostle's seat and authority devolving 
on a bishop, one would not expect the churches to 
fail in anything which man can supply. They do, 
however, fail grievously in the very particulars in 
which they boast of excellence. Take, for instance, 
architecture. Let any one consider such piles as 
Westminster Abbey, Freiburg Minster, or even the 
Italo-Gothic churches of Tuscany, and compare 
with these almost any church or basilica of mo- 
dern Rome. St. Peter's must be excepted, being a 
structure altogether " sui generis," unparalleled in 
the world. But take others. The " Lateran " is 
a prodigious mass, indeed, loaded with balconies, 
crested with statues, and visible from the campagna 
at twenty miles distance ; the pillared porch is fine, 
and a vault within has some rare old mosaics: 
but how much ponderous confusion cumbers these 
beauties ! 

Sta. Maria Maggiore possesses two domes, and 
has a row of pure Ionic columns in white marble, 
types of the " Flos Virginum," down either side of 
the nave ; but what a medley of heavy pomp and 

UOMK. 1 1 1 

glittering extravagance counterbalances this ! An 
enormous flat roof within, better suiting a country 
ball-room than a solemn " basilica." An urn of 
porphyry, with porphyry columns as supporters, 
for the high altar; gorgeous, but out of all keeping. 
The piazza, it is true, displays the most beautiful 
pillar in Rome, but its proportions are marred by 
a thing like a gigantic tea-tray on the top, adopted 
to sustain the weighty bronze Madonna. Constan- 
tine stole this from some Greek chef-d'oeuvre for 
his palace : he little thought that in the sixteenth 
century a pope would carry it off and plant it on 
the summit of the Esquiline. 

The most satisfactory structures arc S. Paolo, 
now rebuilding, and the little church of San Cle- 

This last has a marble presbytery at least one 
thousand years old. The two stone pulpits, from 
which the Epistle and Gospel were read, stand on 
cither side. Behind rise the tribune and altar, 
and a step higher at the back of all is the bishop's 

Most of the churches adhere to no one order of 
architecture ; some which are in a better style arc 
sacrificed to a bad situation, and so produce no 


adequate effect in return for the enormous outlay 
and the ground which they take up. 

In plain truth, modern Rome possesses more 
temples made with hands than she can make use 
of ; and it is to be feared that greediness has been 
the predominating motive in consecrating a greater 
number than her entire population could fill.(c) 
The result is any thing but edifying; some are 
virtually closed, service being lacking for them 
in a ritual whose parts are so numerous and com- 
plex; others, being vaster than was needed and 
teeming with bedizened chapels, have come to pre- 
sent the appearance of a picture-gallery or museum. 
Italy is the land of music, and Pergolesi composed 
the almost unequalled " Stabat Mater," but you 
will look in vain for church-anthems here like 
those which you meet with in England or Germany. 
Either the Romans lack in this respect a true, 
worshipful taste and feeling, or the whole affair is 
jobbed. The best we have heard was in the 
11 Cappella del Coro," at St. Peter's. In the Sis- 
tine, strange to say, it is not first-rate, though the 
pope and cardinal-bishops are generally present. 
Statuary and painting have flooded the churches of 
Rome, and for the most part with very indifferent 

HOME. 113 

specimens in either art. Here and there you. find 
a gem, such as Daniel da Volterra'a fresco of the 
" Deposition," on a wall of the " Trinita dei Monti ;" 
and the " Nativity," by Pinturicchio, in " S. Maria 
del Popolo;" but the of ttoAXo) are a desperate 
collection, such {is might have been gleaned from 
the studios of bad artists or the lumber-room of 
good ones. 

There is one exquisite marble in the Trastevere. 
To see this you have only to drive to the little 
church of Santa Cecilia and walk up the nave. 
On a white slab over the tomb and beneath the 
altar's shade reclines a figure which startles the 
sceptical, and arrests the attention of the most in- 
different. It presents the body of the saint wrapped 
in grave clothes, as it was found on opening her 
sepulchre. The attitude is touching in the ex- 
treme : you see the head, which had been severed 
by the executioner, turned halfway back over the 
shoulder : the hands, which are small and delicate, 
are clasped. This statue was the work of Maderno 
(17th century). Saint Cecilia was a daughter of 
a noble house, and great efforts were made to 
rescue her from suffering, but in vain. 

Previous to being beheaded she was put to the 



torture, but they could not shake her constancy. 
Below in the dungeon is shown an iron grating, 
and a bath where she was plunged in boiling 
waters. Her story and traditional musical talents 
have prompted some noble efforts on the canvass. 
But was she really an accomplished musician, so 
young ? or are these chcf-d'ceuvres to be regarded 
as a tribute of Christian sympathy, emblematical 
of the spiritual harmony to which her soul was 

The convent of Santa Aguese is little inferior in 
interest: in the grotto beneath is Algardi's famous 
relievo, intended to perpetuate the miracle vouch- 
safed in aid of poor Agnes. Those who feel in- 
clined at once to reject all such stories as fabulous, 
should consult some notes in Mr. Borthwiek's 
edition of "Newton on Daniel." There is no lack 
of precedent, in early Christian records, for such 
things. In many of these churches are deeply 
interesting relics, which suggest a world of medi- 
tation. I love to enter San Gregorio, and view 
the identical marble chair, from which the good 
Bishop read and exhorted. Here too is his long 
table, with an inscription recording in words what 
a fresco portrays on the opposite wall. This is 


Gregory, feeding, as he did daily, twelve poor men 
at his board. The eye counts thirteen guests 
present; the thirteenth is the angel who always 
attended: the long slab of marble, now shielded 
by a wooden frame to preserve it, is the identical 
table of Christian hospitality. 

The "Basilicas" are always interesting, from the 
well-ascertained fact of their occupying the original 
site. The first thing, it seems, was the heathen 
court of justice — a "royal" court, hence the 
name : this was adopted, for a while, as a place of 
assembly and worship: next followed the quaint 
but reverend building, which the early Christians 
reared : last came the cathedral-church as now 
existing. Beneath their pavements lie the bodies 
of saints and martyrs, in spots which have never 
been lifted by the mattock. 

San Paolo is the most " church-like " of them all 
in its plan, as now resumed. No expence is spared ; 
and though the costly glories which perished in the 
fire cannot be replaced, the cathedral promises to 
be wellnigh faultless in its majesty and simplicity 
when finished. The altar's canopy is in the beau- 
tiful pointed-gothic style. The entire chancel and 
transepts are being coated above, below, and 

I 2 


around, with pure grey marble, which bears a polish 
like glass. How unfortunate that this site verges 
on the deadly " malaria " region ! Already they 
question whether in summer the canons may ven- 
ture to perform complin and vespers in so perilous 
a spot. 

The aspect of Home, political and national, is 
fraught with signs and tokens, some of which 
bear shrewdly on the other states of Christendom. 
Among these, the history of Concordats and 
Protectorships is remarkable. This basilica of 
San Paolo had the sovereign of England for its 
Protector, previous to the Reformation, just as 
the Kings of France stood for the Lateran, and the 
Spanish and Austrian rulers for Santa Maria 
Maggiore and St. Peter's respectively: of these 
four Austria alone is valid at this day ; but every 
staunch Roman Catholic frets at her emperor's 
interpositions, and the *' Veto " which he exercises 
on the election of a new pope is regarded as a 
sinful blot on the church's banner. As to the 
others, Spain cannot hold her own, much less 
trouble or aid the Consistory here. France has an 
unanointed head, whose very title is altered, for 
he is not, like his predecessors, " King of France," 

HOME, . 117 

but " King of the French;" and all the marked 
favour shown in his repeated, almost mira- 
culous preservations do not sanctify him as a 
sovereign in the eyes of Roman Catholics. The 
" Eldest Son of the Church," the " Most Christian 
King," the successor of Pepin, and Charlemagne, 
and St. Louis, lacks the " anointing " to his office. 

Then England, dearest and most cherished of 
all, has parted company. The people to whom 
Augustine went, and whom he half designated 
"angels;" the nation whose pilgrims have left 
the old prophecy on the destinies of Rome and her 
Coliseum ; the subjects of the " Defender of the 
Faith "... have sundered, haply for ever! — De- 
spairing of purifying a corrupt system, they have 
taken the irremediable step of separation ; and the 
whole " orbis terrarum," must suffer loss in 
consequence. In England we have the sign, 
thought by some a triumphant one, of St. PauFa 
Cathedral, constructed under Elizabeth : in Rome, 
San Paolo has also given the sign — smoking 
ruins, calcined columns, and a pillared marble nave, 
once without a rival in the world, reduced to 
ashes ! Nothing save the western fa^de remains 
of the structure which Constantine founded and 

i .1 


Theodosius reared, and where Alfred " paced the 
studious cloister's pale." 

San Sebastian has catacombs extending twenty 
miles to Ostia. These have been pierced from 
time to time, and many of the inscriptions now in 
the Vatican were thus obtained. The pope, they 
say, is averse to the further prosecution of these 
researches; whether from a conscientious feeling 
of reverence, or from fear of malaria breaking 
out, I do not know. We descended from the nave 
into the dark winding passages below; and with 
the aid of our torches followed for some hundred 
of yards a main branch. Here and there a small 
area relieved the stifling sensation caused by the 
damp red tufo. All around, under low-arched 
vaults, and in long narrow niches, the bodies of 
the early Christians were laid by their surviving 
brethren. Traces of 170,000 tombs were found. 
The quarries were originally Etruscan, worked 
afterwards by the Romans, for the sake of the 
" pozzolana " with which they stuffed their heavy 
arches. How free and bold is man where he has 
a revelation to guide him, and how timid and 
over-cautious must he ever be in its absence ! 

The nations who " sat in darkness," when they 

HOMK. 119 

lost their kindred, burned the body, gathered up 
the bones for preservation in an urn, and after 
depositing this in a sarcophagus of marble or 
alabaster, enshrined the whole in a costly mauso- 
leum ; while the Christians to whom the assured 
faith of a resurrection made their very bodies a 
mystery and precious, were content to lie, side by 
side, thousands upon thousands, in the dark cells 
of a pozzolana quarry. The Patriarclts in like 
manner would purchase " a cave in a field:" and 
still the sweetest burial is to sleep beneath the 
rugged elms, and in the yew tree's shade, and 
await the latter day. 

Biwielleschi achieved the double dome in Flo- 
rence: as this was the first instance, the highest 
praise is due to him. Michael Angelo took a two- 
fold model: he knew that the cupola of San 
Giovanni could not be surpassed in elegance ; but 
he knew also that the old rotunda of the Pantheon 
was a vaster thing, and, if it could be lifted high 
enough, would ensure an effect of sublimity not 
reached by any architect in the world as yet. He 
said he would raise the Pantheon's dome aloft in 
air, and he has done it ! From his 72nd to his 

l 4 


89th year, when most men yield to the " labour 
and sorrow" of age, he toiled on amid partisan 
envy and hindrance, and before he died, saw the 
double dome, the largest in the world, resting on 
its piers in the city where the foremost Apostles 
founded the Church of Christ. 

" Pftlmam qui meruit fcrat." 

The Florence cupola is actually a few feet taller, 
but its supports are a hundred feet lower than 
those of St. Peter's : and this prodigious elevation, 
joined to the bulging, cup-like swell of its meri- 
dians, renders the latter incomparably grander. 

Had the energetic Florentine lived ten years 
longer, he would have carried out his entire plan ; 
a Greek cross, Corinthian fa9ade, and the " punto " 
for the coup d'ecil to be the centre of the piazza. 
The thing would then have been faultless. But 
modern Rome was not worthy of such majestic 
beauty: Maderno and others were allowed to 
change the glorious design ; a line of heavy balco- 
nies almost bisects the dome horizontally, and you 
must stand far off to have an idea of the entire 
structure. At the same time, it will probably be 
conceded by those who have travelled over the 

ROME. 121 

world that they have never seen in any clime 
an edifice so stupendously grand. 

The sweeping colonnades of Bernini, the obelisk 
in the centre with the two delicious fountains on 
either side, the immeasurable flight of steps, a 
vestibule near live hundred feet in length crossing 
their summit behind those enormous pillars, — lastty, 
the matchless dome with its belfry and " candle- 
sticks," its ball and cross, clearing a hundred and 
fifty yards above the flagstones of the nave, and 
carrying the eye with it over the earthly pomp of 
travertine and marble, metal and glass, into the 
depths of the blue sky of Italy ! When has earth 
yielded so noble a pile, or the all- visiting heaven 
enfolded an outline so glorious ? 

I honour Wren exceedingly, and look forward to 
the day when I may again stand with my back to 
Mr. Dollond's shop, and gaze upward at our own 
metropolitan Ball and Cross, nearer the heavens, and 
more worthy of them than any other pile in London, 
— but comparison between the two churches there 
can be none. Situation, stature, material, are all 
so different! I have often admired the effect of 
the travertine in large masses; a marble struc- 
ture would have looked pale and sickly ; but the 


rich ochre flush accords well, and is in due keeping 
with such vast proportions as these. Perhaps the 
best view of the cathedral is from the Pincian 
towards sunset, when the dome stands out in 
relief against a bright sky behind it. 

The tomb of St. Peter and the remains of early 
Christian martyrs, immediately under the Baldac- 
chino, may be regarded as the corner-stone of the 
foundation. Its progress as a building from this 
simple and awful commencement has been strangely 
at variance with church notions. Some forty popes 
have devoted their own energies and the money 
of their neighbours to urge the work forward 
from generation to generation, during more than 
three centuries, during which interval the entire 
plan was changed several times from a Greek cross 
to a Latin, and vice versfl. Leo's sale of " indul- 
gences " without measure or modesty, to meet the 
expences, which latterly rose mountain-high, were a 
main incidental cause of the Protestant secession : 
on which occasion our Eighth Henry, hailed as 
" Defender of the Faith," earned from the Roman 
Catholics the less gracious appellation of " Posti- 
lion of the Reformation." The entire cost of the 
structure has been estimated at six millions of our 

UOMR. 123 

money, but I do not sec how this can be accurately 
known, for many sumptuous offerings and gratui- 
tous labours of artists were not taken into account. 
One source of enormous outlay latterly has been 
the copies in mosaic from the old masters. To 
execute a picture of ten feet by six, if a Raffaellc 
or Guido, requires from three to five years, and 
costs ten thousand " scudi." The material is not 
now marble, as of old, but a hard porcelain. 

The morning we visited the Fabbrica, our guide 
pointed to shelves containing sixteen thousand dif- 
ferent shades in the usual colours. 

The front gates of the " subterranean grotto " 
arc not opened ; but a side-door admits you into 
the circular passage beneath, on which abut the 
shrines and chapels. St. Peter's remains and a 
part of St. Paul's are collected, as Roman Catholics 
aver, in an inner cassa, shielded by a tabernacle 
with folding-doors ; the two leaves bearing their 
effigies in equal honour. The wainscots around 
bear paintings in rude fresco and various mosaics, 
the work of the primitive Christians. Elsewhere 
lie huge mausoleums in rough granite : one of these 
holds the body of Adrian IV. (Nicolas Break- 
spear), the only English pope. 


The most solemn sight revealed by the torches is 
some uneven, mixed pavement, in a plot of other- 
wise bare ground, under which sleep the martyrs ! 
This has never been disturbed. An oratory, a 
basilica, and the present cathedral have successively 
risen over it. The church monuments, with the 
exception of M. Angelo's "Pietil" and Canova's 
Lions and " Genius of Death " at Rezzonico's 
tomb, I believe disappoint everybody : gigantic 
groups, colossal figures, vehement action — but 
nothing worthy of the place or the architecture. 

A government order having been obtained, we 
started, a few mornings since, to ascend to the 
ball. This document is from the state office, 
signed by the minister of the interior, who in the 
formula washes his hands of all blood-guiltiness if 
you should fall from any of the ultitudcs and dash 
out your brains, a comfortable prestige for those 
who are given to be nervous. The first stair, which 
mounts some 200 feet perpendicular to the attic, 
is a spiral slope which laden mules can traverse. 
All here is clean and white as dimity. Arrived on 
the roof of the attic, you find a colony of workmen 
and their houses, the statues of the Saviour and 
Twelve Apostles, and around you a superb prospect. 

HOME. 125 

These colossal figures viewed close are rude enough : 
St. Matthew's thumb is an awkward bit of stone, a 
foot long ; this gives the just effect from below : 
the second stair, somewhat narrower, lands you 
above the capitals of the pillars from which the 
dome springs. Here wc walked round the circular, 
balustraded gallery, and again corrected the im- 
pressions of distance. Cherubs' dove-like eyes 
were found to be rough uneven bricks ; and mo- 
saics, which seem exquisite from the pavement, 
were like a road commencing macadamization. 
The pavement of the church itself had dwindled to 
the resemblance of a chess-board, and the Baldac- 
chino (90 feet high) seemed a child's cradle. Yet 
another stair, and a long one, winding between the 
two shells of the cupola : it is narrow of course, 
but as wide as some garret-stairs. When we 
emerged from this, we were 400 feet above the 
pavement, and the great fresco at the crown of the 
vault lay a little under our feet. From one of 
the " candlestick " portals we gazed on a scene dif- 
ficult to describe. Rome was reduced to compressed 
domes, and jagged lines formed by the palace-roofs : 
here and there an overgrown gable or crested 
ruin towered above the horizontal masses, like the 


hull of the Dreadnought among our Thames 
lighters. Some of the shadows projected were very 
fine. The Tiber apparently motionless lay curled 
on the umber-tinted Campagna, the Latian and 
Sabine hills swept the sky in undulating lines of 
blue, Soracte heaved a dark serrated ridge, and, 
seaward, Ostia might be discerned crouching on 
the water's edge. Some fifty steps lead from hence 
to the metal ladder which admits you at a 
round orifice into the ball. Within this singular 
retreat you may amuse yourself with tapping the 
hollow shell, and listening to the music of (he 
spheres. The diameter is some 8 or 9 feet, and 
you can perch very comfortably on the cross 
bars. People may think the above dimensions 
scanty for a drawing-room ; I can only say the 
ball is as roomy as some of the cabins in our 
" magnificent accommodation " steamers. After 
this we descended from our altitudes as safely 
as the benevolent minister of the Holy Sec could 

NAl'J.KS. 127. 


January 7, 1845. 
Yesterday we turned our backs on dirty Capua, 
and got the first sniff of the sea-breeze, and the 
first hearty stare at Vesuvius, from this beautiful 
city. On our road nothing struck me more than 
the Pontine Marshes at sunset, all glowing with 
umber and orange tints. We halted for an hour at 
Cicero's Formian Villa to see the " lions," which 
are very poor. The marble which once lined these 
tufo galleries is gone, and in trying to make out the 
plan of the " atria " you get your feet wet with the 
oozy spring, and your coat sanded by the wall. 
But the sapphire heaven is bright as ever, and in 
an orchard which skirts the bay we ate some 
blood-red oranges off the tree ripe and delicious. 
This, in January ! 

The first news here is, that we've got a Scotch 
landlady, a good old soul who rents a "palazzo" in 
the Chiaja, but talks about " the bush aboon 

" Napoli per bellezza ! " says the country 
proverb, and stupendously beautiful it is. A city 


bright as a pearly shell just thrown up by the 
wave ; cliffs and terraces hung with gardens and 
belvideres, and pierced by a gigantic grotto ; while 
directly in front Capri's dark mass is moored upon 
the water-line, and landward across the curve of 
the bay, Vesuvius, like a brown sentinel, overlooks a 
busy metropolis, a dimpling sea, and a landscape 
sprinkled with a hundred villages. Before the 
great eruption which blew off the top of the cone, this 
mountain must have been a glorious object : still 
the present broken form is more picturesque, and 
that vast, black orifice is a safety-valve for Naples. 
I know nothing finer than the long sloping out- 
line which descends between Portici and Sorrento 
meeting the coast at an evanescent angle ; its deli- 
cacy contrasts well with the bold jagged summit. 

January 13. 

A few hours since we returned from the ascent of 
Vesuvius. The difficulty, strictly speaking, is next 
to nothing ; and though the fatigue is monstrous 
one forgets it from the moment of reaching the 
crater's edge. Our way was this : a drive from 
Naples to Resina ; thence some five miles in the 
saddle over abominable roads, to the foot of the 

NAPLES. 129 

main ascent. Here we halted twenty minutes at 
Friar Tuck's hermitage (d), and obtained some good 
macaroni and bad wine to supply the sinews of 
war for struggling over the lava-rocks. From 
this point the distance to the summit may be a 
couple of miles, but an hour and a half is needed 
to reach it if you would avoid vertigo and a stitch 
in the side. We had average weather and the 
occasional retrospective glimpses were magnificent. 
Our path lay through indurated fields of lava, the 
results of divers eruptions, piled one over another. 
There is a part of the mountain, about midway 
from its base, where on a mixture of friable ashes 
and vegetable mould, they grow the vines of the 
11 Lacryraa Christi." Here green slopes and terraces 
touch on the edge of the lava. From this line 
for a mile upwards, the scene is wild and haggard, 
huge masses forming themselves into picturesque 
barriers or curved and jutting edges. I felt all the 
time very much as if I was walking in the moon. 
It was certainly unlike anything we had seen before, 
save that I recognized in the dark strata under our 
feet the material which cut into cubical blocks 
paves Naples. What is this material? Is it 
melted granite cooled down again ? Whatever it be, 


it is an enemy to shoeleather and shin-bones. Ad- 
vancing, we found the sides of the cone very steep, 
but the difficulty which presented itself some years 
since, when all was loose cinder, no longer exists 
here, and your footing is firm. Ladies however 
do not walk up, if they are wise ; a " portantina," 
borne by a squadron of men and boys on long 
poles, carries the gentler sex, while we lords of 
the creation stride over the chaotic waste and 
burn the soles of our boots. The cone surmounted, 
we stood on the edge of a dark crater some two 
miles in circuit and of no great depth. We ex- 
perienced new sensations in traversing the fis- 
sured crust which covers it. Half-cold cinders 
were crackling around us ; at every other step we 
saw through partial rents the red-hot lava flowing 
in the direction of the sea, and momentary explo- 
sions broke on our ears as the subterranean gas 
escaped. The general aspect was that of the bed 
of some vast furnace, where sulphur has streaked 
the cooling masses witli orange and verditcr, and 
impregnated the jets of smoke which burst through 
apertures in its sides and bottom. I climbed the 
chimney, a black hillock heaped with ashes about 
forty feet in height, and walking round its edge 

NAPLES. 131 

looked into the mouth of the funnel. It was a 
lake of fire : volleys of smoke whirled up from it ; 
occasionally came a gush of flame with fumes of 
brimstone, and every now and then a shower of 
something like lighted rags, only heavier. At ten 
feet distance the heat, even to windward, was suf- 
focating, and my feet were half grilled. The flame 
which is intermittent probably resembles that 
which plays on the surface of ignited alcohol. I 
thrust a stout stick into a crevice in the chimney's 
side: it took fire instantly; this argues a great 
degree of heat. 

No written description conveys an adequate idea 
of such a scene. I think, however, that a glacier 
is a more supernatural kind of thing : the sensations 
produced by fire and smoke are familiar to those 
who have witnessed a conflagration, or visited a 
coal and iron district : but the death-like stillness, 
the benumbing chill which possess you on a glacier 
are something unwonted and mysterious. The 
streaked veins too in the ice and the deep pre- 
cipitous clefts are perhaps as horribly beautiful as 
the sulphureous lavas. 

Returning, we descended by a rapid slope, all 
strewn with powdered ashes: you may get down 

K 2 


in eight minutes. When we reached the foot of 
the green ascent, I found our precious guides, who 
on various pretences had excused themselves, one 
with tears in his eyes, from accompanying us 
on the " salita," eating, drinking, smoking, and 
singing " canzonetti." Had we been murdered or 
carried off by the banditti who still infest the hill 
these two youths and the valiant soldier with his 
musket would have coined a legend on the spot, 
including a desperate combat waged by themselves 
witli brigands " in Kendal green." 

A pretty sight awaited us coming home: night 
had fallen, and the whole bay was lit up, producing 
the effect of a necklace of diamonds on dark blue 

The expedition occupied about nine hours. 

Naples, Month of May. 

It is better to see the Royal Museum here before 
visiting Pompeii, as in that way you get some idea 
of what the contents and furnishing of that city 
were, when first discovered beneath its sepulchral 
mound of ashes. Everything that was not too hot 
or too heavy has been transferred hither from the 
above site and from Hcrculaneum; and royal halls 

NAPLES. 133 

are fitted up like the arcades in a bazaar, but with 
wares 2000 years old. You turn from noble 
specimens of the antique in " fine arts " to the 
simple objects of domestic householdry and por- 
traitures of domestic life. No galleries can equal 
these in interest. I shall say little of the marbles, 
though the " Farnese Hercules," in every sense 
a prodigious performance, is here. The animals 
and busts in bronze mock the pulses of life: 
" Plato's head" and " a group of horses" would 
have thrown Benvenuto Cellini into raptures. 
Then the bronzes — what a show! In lamps, 
bells, tables, ovens — they beat us of the nine- 
teenth century hollow : our portable kitchens and 
coffee-biggins, " Etnas " and egg-boilers are not so 
original as we fancy : many of our new patents 
were, it seems, taken out by the Pompeians long 
ago. But the kitchen department, bake-house, 
larder, and confectionary, surviving on the frescoed 
panels, will serve you for a dinner if you have 
any soul at all. Under that glass case is a 
collection of the veritable articles taken from board 
and shelf in the excavated houses — eggs calcined 
by the heat, oil in an enamelled bottle, spice, 



conserves, and a loaf of bread, black but unbroken, 
stamped with the baker's name in one corner. 

Around are wainscots from the halls and bed- 
rooms of Pompeii, the frescoes having been carefully 
lifted and transported hither. You may learn the 
arrangements of a buttery or larder in the " old 
style," or, if satirically given, may see what " Cari- 
catures" were like some 2000 years since. The 
" heroic " is not lacking either. Here is Achilles 
educated by Chiron, and appearing at Admetus's 
court. The Trojan shepherd too, on Mount Ida, 
is here with the three rival claimants, awarding 
the coveted apple, and receiving in guerdon the 
ruin of his country. All these figures wear the 
" pallium," attesting the Greek origin of Pompeii. 
I did not see the " toga " once. Of the Etruscan 
vases I am ashamed to speak : nothing less than a 
volume could do them justice. In the frescoes, 
the human form is nobly depicted ; but the land- 
scapes are confused and faulty in perspective. 

Our visit to Pompeii was made on a festa-day, 
when free admission is granted to the lower classes : 
there was no lack of humble pic-nics on the broken 
banks, and gay holiday dresses enlivened the streets 
of the overwhelmed city. I thought the Forum 

NAPLES. 135 

the most interesting spot in the kingdom of Naples. 
So many classical objects grouped on a command- 
ing platform would always be admirable ; but here 
are features of sterner interest, reminding one of 
some forest-glade where they have been busy with 
the axe. Many columns arc fallen, many stand: 
dismantled temples and voiceless theatres are 
gathered round, their forms antique, but much of 
their colouring and cornice fresh as if of yesterday* 

After pondering the ravage awhile, you lift up 
your eyes and Vesuvius confronts you, looking 
down on the scene of his havoc like a silent bat- 
tery over a battlefield. He appears harmless now ; 
brilliant colours are on his vast flanks, and the 
light fleecy clouds are coquetting with his broken 
summit, but yet he cannot be trusted ; that thin 
blue film which floats away from his crater tells 
of a loaded magazine within, and none can say 
when it may explode. 

Pompeii is, perhaps, a mile and a half long : the 
amphitheatre, an enormous excavation, lies away 
from the rest of the town : Murat cleared all this 

In the streets the very stones are a speaking 
record j you tread the identical pavement whose 

K 4 


surface is unchanged in 1700 years; the carriage- 
wheel ruts are in the granite, and the mark made 
by the iron tire is visible within the rut. Shop- 
fronts are open, but the inmates apparently not 
yet stirring. Here you enter a palace and admire 
the frescoes and arabesques on its walls, its courts, 
fountain, and baths ; but where is the host ? This 
next is evidently a hospitable mansion, and your 
Saxon sympathies are enlisted by the old spelling 
of the auspicious word " Have," mosaicked on its 
threshold; but pass the portal and you will in- 
herit no vocal welcome: all is real, but all is 
dumb, and your own footstep, echoed back from 
the angle of the wall, reminds you that you are a 
stranger and a " barbarian," pacing the hearth- 
stone of a departed lord. 

In the house of Diomedes most is shown ; a rich 
cit, who could afford to give his daughter a hand- 
some suite of apartments. We went into the 
cellarage ; a long passage at the bottom of a stair, 
where some old discoloured "amphorae" still remain, 
like ghostly sentinels of buried mirth. Here was 
probably made the last rush by the unhappy inmates 
to escape from the devouring element. On a wall 
near its extremity the outlines of human figures 

NAPLES- 137 

are visible, an indelible stain made by fire and 
blood ! 

"We were three hours and a half in Pompeii ; it 
was like a waking dream. The fees are not heavy, 
but are always levied on strangers. 

I do not know a more striking contrast than to 
pass from this still beautiful city to the buried 
Herculaneum ; while the former suns its relics on a 
raised mound amid the scenery of meadows and 
corn-fields, the latter lies deep, deep under the 
cheerful surface, clasped and knotted by Vesuvius 
in embraces of stone — for here poured the lava- 
flood, but Pompeii was smothered under a shower 
of hot ashes. We plunged by torchlight into the 
excavated theatre whose dimensions exceeded those 
of San Carlo — I forget by how many feet, but we 
stepped the line of the orchestra. 

Here are places where the tools of the excavators 
have cut sheer through sixty feet perpendicular of 
a rock now solid and motionless, but which then 
came rolling in with fiery billows of asphalte from 
the jaws of the burning mountain ! In the long, 
dark corridor you stumble upon costly labours of 
sculptors and house-decorators, some of them per- 
haps still in progress when the dreadful lava burst 


in and stopped it all. A carved cornice, a bit of a 
marble capital, a patch of brilliant red peep out 
where the wall has been reached ; and if you put 
your finger into that auger-hole you may draw 
out pieces of the cedar-beam burnt to a fine char- 
coal* Little more can now be done in the way 
of excavating, for overhead is the town of Portici 
with some thousands of souls, as you may know 
by the rumbling of the carriage- wheels. 

Naples is a difficult city to describe. The 
Italians call it " bella." A sunset view of the Bay, 
with those pearly hills beyond, yields a coup d'ceil 
perhaps without a parallel in Europe. 

Within the gates of this " bella Napoli," nearly 
half a million of people cat their macaroni ; yet 
scarce one of these can be persuaded by law or 
gospel to do anything for the benefit of the city 
which he loves to distraction. The tradesmen are 
greedy jobbers, the artisans are snails : the nobles, 
such as have not yet taken to street-begging, care 
for little under the sun save curricles, ices and San 
Carlo. All classes and both sexes live and breathe 
for the lotteries. 

Yonder is one of the frankest members of 
society, a native specimen. His jacket unbuttoned, 

NAPLES. 139 

his shirt open, his feet bare, his brow and temples 
exposed without flinching to the sun's ray, he is 
toasting himself on the lava pavement. He is a 
lazzarone. Without a care for to-day, a thought for 
to-morrow, or a recollection of the forty years of 
life called " yesterday," his "abandon" is perfect: yet 
it is a fine animal ; he has wit that is proverbial, a 
temper that never ruffles, the tact of a diplomatist, 
and the limbs of an Apollo. All this is indigenous 
with him : if he ever stoops to the servitude of what 
Mr. Coleridge called " originating an idea, " it is in 
the way of pondering a lucky number for the lottery. 
Without the regularity of what we call a market 
in London, certain districts here have a traffic 
peculiar to themselves. If you wish to sec five 
millions of oranges, step on the quays pf Santa 
Lucia when the boats from Sorrento are unloading. 
Silks and wines from Sicily come in by the port, 
where a stiff Dogana awaits them. Pass down the 
Toledo, the finest two-mile street on the Continent, 
and you will get an idea of the amount of mercantile 
business in sundry departments. Gloves are a 
prodigious staple: at every third or fourth door 
dangles a mimic hand, and there is no fit like that 
of the Naples kid at a shilling the pair : it is neces- 


* sary however to choose them. Next to these the 
" belle arti " shops astonish one by their multitude : 
who upon earth buys all these imitative wares, to 
say nothing of " antiques," real or supposed ? — 
Casts and models from the Museum, lamps, tazze, 
paterc, terra-cotta heads, lava and coral ornaments, 
with drawers of sparkling fossils from Vesuvius, 
perhaps the prettiest item of the lot. In this rain- 
bow-tinted climate every one sketches and paints, 
but they don't all paint well. Besides the countless 
daubs in oils and splashes in water colours, mostly 
copied one from another, here is that monstrous 
invention the " Aguache " caricaturing the inimi- 
table face of nature in a style only fit to paper a 

The Chiaja gardens are delightful : open walks 
and umbrageous alleys, and the fresh breeze from 
the wave which breaks scarce twenty yards from 
the terrace. Centering in the main promenade is 
the enormous granite bowl from Pa\stum, supported 
on modern lions : a very noble basin. Half a mile 
beyond this the tide of life ebbs away at the Mer- 
gellina, where, saving the gulls, there is little but 
fishermen's boats and the half-clad urchins groping 
among the rocks for " sea-horses." Some of these 

NAPLES. 141 

youths are as diverting as seals or dolphins : they 
live in the buoyant element, and if you throw in a 
a carline " in deep waters will dive and bring it up 
before it has time to reach the bottom. 

Now if any one wishes to know the leading 
characteristic of this beautiful " Parthcnopc," I 
can give it them on authority of four months' 
standing. All the way by shore or street, in 
market or piazza, balcony or belvidere, from the 
bare Mergellina to the utmost verge of the busy 
city towards Capodimonte and Resina, one thing 
never fails under any circumstances, and that is 
what the Italians call " Chiasso," best rendered by 
the French word " Charivari." 

Santa Chiara is a pretty church ; though most 
of the consecrated buildings here look tawdry 
after those of Florence and Rome. San Gennaro 
has a wearisome collection of busts in solid silver, 
some of them colossal, of bishops and martyrs; 
these arc ordinarily locked up in the cupboards of 
the sacristy ; could a more unedifying way be hit 
upon of sinking offerings? San Gennaro's image 
has a collar of jewels of inestimable value if real ; 
but as the French were here long enough to look 
about them, the finer stones must ere this have 


transmigrated into coloured glass. The relievo on 
the fa$adc of the High Altar, representing the 
entry of the saint's relics into the city, and the 
discomfiting of Famine, War, Pestilence, and 
Heresy before them, is well done. In San Severo 
we saw some extraordinary pieces of sculpture. 
The figure of " Modesty " is the best done. This 
adhering of the veil to the face is arrived at by 
using a model enveloped in wet cambric; the 
effect is marvellous, but after all these very out-of- 
the-way things rather astonish than please ; and a 
simple natural subject affords more scope to true 

The other day we were present in the Royal 
Chapel on the occasion of the annual " dead mass " 
for the late queen. She was greatly beloved by 
all classes, and to this day no Neapolitan speaks of 
her but with reverence and affection. To conquer 
so universal an homage, rare qualities met in her ; 
piety and charity shone conspicuous, and when 
she died of a child-bed fever, this giddy city was 
stunned by the blow. Sovereigns usually marry 
again, and the King of Naples has now a second 
consort, a Bavarian princess ; they have an in- 
creasing family, but the little boy whom his first 

NAPLES. 143 

wife brought him is the heir-apparent. Before he 
is of age to mix in the gaieties of a brilliant court, 
some one should read him a memoir of his 
mother's life. 

" The Queen that bore thee 
Oftener upon her knees than on her feet 
Died every day she lived." 

Her mausoleum occupies the centre of the little 
chapel. The king and the royal family were in 
a gallery above, and all the officers of his house- 
hold filled atiother. The archbishop, with his 
clergy, conducted the service, and a noble or- 
chestra was in attendance. I thought the cere- 
mony solemn and beautiful ; if for nothing else, 
at least as testifying to piety and affection in the 
living by recording departed worth. A tomb- 
stone legend does this, but not so heartily as a 
service in the church. At a certain part of the 
office the sentinels posted at the four corners of the 
mausoleum all turn to it, and shoulder and ground 
arms. This simple military movement, the only 
one permitted during the ceremony, had something 
in it reverend and touching. I thought of our 
own lamented Princess Charlotte. 

The sovereign is a handsome man, in the prime 


of life ; he is said to care for nothing but soldiers, 
an expensive hobby. I believe he has some eight 
or nine cavalry regiments, and twice as many of 
infantry. He devotes to their maintenance the 
immense revenue which he draws from the 
lotteries, which here, as elsewhere in Italy, are in 
the hands of government. If one may judge by 
what one hears, or even by what one sees, the 
troops will never do their training much credit. 

The new recruits are marched into the city, tied 
hand by hand, like a gang of thieves. I suppose 
the fear is that they may decamp: but what a 
commencement of education for men who are to 
serve their country in an honourable profession ! 
There is certainly little chance of their " seeking 
the bubble reputation ev'n in the cannon's mouth." 
Of artillery " Sua Maest&" has no lack; and he 
has fortresses which assign him a place among 
earth's mighty ones, according to that distich 

<c Principiui, pulu/.zi c giardini : 
Principoni, fortczzc o cannone." 

The Ovo commands the harbour, and can sweep 
the Bay. That of Sant fflmo, crowning the cliff, 
is the key of the city. An enemy in possession of 

NAI'LKS. 145 

this could lay Naples in ashes in a few hours. 
This Sant' Elmo affords a noble panoramic view ; 
and whoever wishes to get a true idea of Vesuvius' 
position relative to the mountain ranges of Puglia 
(Apulia) and the Abruzzi (Bruttii) should climb 
up to it. 

Palaces, it must be allowed, are chiefly inte- 
resting to their possessors ; but the royal residences 
here are worth visiting, even after Windsor and 
St Cloud. The Palazzo Reale, in the city, is perhaps 
the best furnished in Europe ; certainly in the best 
taste of those I have seen. Its ball-room is truly 
royal : here are a dozen of the largest mirrors in 
the world, simply impanelled in a delicate border : 
a millionaire cit would have buried them in heavy 
gilt frames. On the groundfloor there is a suite 
wholly wainscoted with real frescoes and arabesques 
from Pompeii. 

Capodimonte has the most beautiful site, though 
somewhat a singular one. It is reared on the 
undermined crust of a tufo-quarry, and yields first- 
rate views from its balconies of the city, the bay, 
and the Vesuvian country. Carlo built here, and 
also at Portici, for the sake of the quail-chase! 
which if any one think unlikely in a king, they 


may read Colletta's account of a royal personage of 
the same house, whose most engrossing occupa- 
tion, when victoriously established in Naples, was 
shooting pigeons from his palace windows ; the said 
pigeons belonging, in all probability, to his subjects. 
At Partici the royal demesne is a sweet villa, 
with gardens k la Zoological, where sundry kan- 
garoos jump for your amusement, and a stately 
ostrich is ready to bolt and make off to Paestum at 
twenty miles an hour, whenever they open the 
doors of his hut. I never saw so fine a creature as 
this bird : his eye, which could not rest a moment, 
was like a prodigious opal. By the bye Capodi- 
monte has an avenue of ilexes, I believe a mile and 
a half in length, among other horticultural wonders. 
Its farm is excellent ; and the produce, after sup- 
plying the royal table, goes to market. Pictures, 
in the sense of the fine old masters, are rare in 
Naples. The Studj, however, has Correggio's 
" Sposalizio," and one or two others. The artists 
here are inveterate copyists, worse even than in 
Rome. I opine that for one original sketch made 
in the landscape line, there arc to be found a 
hundred copies, each worse than its predecessor. 
Hence, the merest daub, if original, will fetch a 

NAI'LKN. 117 

guinea, which here is equal to three in England. 
They have, however, one excuse ; whoever essays 
to colour a picture out of doors in this climate, 
between May and, perhaps, September, may count 
upon being himself done like a broiled kidney; 
unless he sit under an umbrella, in which case the 
gadflies will eat him up. The most amusing pictures 
at Capodimonte are those recording events and 
scenes in the national history: as, for instance, 
" the brave girl of Gaeta," who, after despatching 
a French sentry a la Jael, spikes the guns of the 
battery with a store of ready nails from her apron, 
and then delivers over the fortress to her townsmen. 
But of all palaces Caserta is the grandest — a 
stupendous pile uniting four cubes on a square base, 
any one of which might serve for a handsome royal 
dwelling. The grounds are stately, and include 
points of romantic beauty : one of these is the old 
town, " Casa erta," a picturesque ruin on a green 
hill, whose isolated gables and gaunt arches admit 
the blue sky through the rents of ruin. Here 
is an artificial waterfall descending from a lofty 
ridge over accommodating rocks, and a pretty 
basin where huge centenarian carp rise to the sur- 
face to eat boiled peas. The queen is very partial 

L 2 


to Caserta, always retreating there when a certain 
interesting event is at hand. It is twenty miles 
off, but that is only forty minutes by railway 

Perhaps no city, save Rome, has environs so well 
worth exploring as those of Naples. Westward lie 
Posilipo, Pozzuoli, Raise, Cuma, and the volcanic 
lakes : eastward, beyond Pompeii, is the romantic 
village of La Cava, from whence you may visit 
Amalfi and Salerno, and farther south, Paestum. 
Castellamare is now almost a suburb of the metro- 
polis, and Sorrento is at the distance of a pretty 
drive from it. 

Once through the grotto of Posilipo, the road to 
Pozzuoli is full of beauty for those who can enjoy 
a marine bay and curling breakers. Paul halted 
for a week in " Puteoli" on his way to Rome. I 
fear the folks here think but little of the faithful 
servant who " fought the good fight," in compari- 
son with San Gennaro. The Italians are possessed 
with a notion that they arc neglected by mankind ; 
their leading idea of a saint is a local benefactor ; 
and in every city their own particular patron is of 
paramount importance. 

Puteoli is now a sunny sink of triumphant filth 

NAVLF.8. 149 

and disease. Men, women, and children are 
searching each other's heads in the open street — 
I need not say for what ; flea-bitten dogs, mangy 
and fretful, plunge and grovel in the dust; and 
the cab-horses, half eaten up alive, can barely 
muster strength to dislodge the flies with a shake 
of their rusty collar. 

Beware of crossing a threshold ; you would 
emerge a richer man than you entered by some 
thousands, I don't mean dollars. Art cannot make 
our populations happy, not even "antiques:" here 
are two marble statues in the street as old as the 
Csesars; and within a stone's throw lie a noble 
amphitheatre, all but perfect, and the beautiful 
temple of Jupiter Serapis : the people who inherit 
it all look as if they were bought and sold. 

The pleasantest sight here are the stacks of fresh 
lupins kept for fodder. I drove in one morning 
from Naples, wishing to sketch " Venus's Temple " 
on the shore : looking about for what I could get 
the poor animal who brought me to eat, one of 
these bundles half as big as himself was pitched in 
for a u carline." In articles of vertu, roguery 
here has done with blushing: the boys offer as 
genuine " antico" lamps in bronze and terra cotta, 

J, 3 


which even our unpractised eyes detect at once 
as imitation-ware: when you rebuke them they 
mimic you and grin. The prices are still rftore 
edifying; say a dollar is first asked, from this 
they will descend to one-half, fourth, tenth of the 

The " Serapis" has broken columns of Egyptian 
granite and " cipollina" standing amidst the wreck 
of others : the base and pillar-sockets of the central 
altar are still visible. The whole thing now rises 
out of a store- pond for grey mullets, who are fat- 
tened by the mingling of salt water with the 
volcanic springs. Further along the shore, and 
approaching Baite, is the Lucrine Lake, a wild spot : 
the fishing here is superb, as of yore ; its waters 
are crowded with a curled univalve shell, which I 
find stains every thing red. Is not this the 
" murex" ? 

Baice is full of the wonders of other days, where 
luckily the frivolous has perished, but the massive 
and instructive remain in great part uninjured. 
The palaces of Caesar and Lentulus have crumbled 
with all their marbles into dust ; but the " Piscina," 
which Lucullus built to water the Roman fleet as 
it lay at Miscnum, remains: the " Stufi" cut by 

NAPLES. 151 

Nero in the cliff remain; the Odeon remains; 
above all, the fine harbour and promontory of 
Misenum remain, nor is there much chance of their 
running away. Here Virgil drowns iEneas's 
trumpeter by the instrumentality of a Triton : I 
have heard of a German who said that if he ever 
took the suicidal plunge it should be in lovely 
Lake Leman : if beauty of scenery was his object, 
I could recommend this singular coast as having 
equal claims on his choice. Both have one advan- 
tage; the water is so translucent that the body 
might be fished up in time for a " Humane So- 
ciety" operation. 

The red hexagonal ruin on the shore is highly 
ornamental ; perhaps was once useful, for who can 
show that such nonsense as a " Temple to Venus" 
was contemplated here ? 

The "Piscina Mirabile" is a gigantic artificial 
cistern covered by the superincumbent cliff, and 
supported within on some forty pilasters of traver- 
tine ; paved, walled, and roofed with stone. Here 
fresh water was collected, allowed to settle, and 
then conveyed by an aqueduct to the fleet. The 
man who planned this knew what it was to be 
thirsty: I thought it admirable, and felt more . 

L 4 


and more convinced that the intrinsic element in 
all beauty is the useful. 

Behind Pozzuoli lies the region of the Solfaterra, 
a word which explains itself. The volcano is 
extinct as to any eruptions from its crater, but 
internal action develops itself throughout the entire 
district. If you break the earth, you see the colour of 
sulphur ; you sniff sulphur in the air from a hundred 
gaseous jets, and the very soil of the glen, apparently 
an aluminous clay, owes its powdery whiteness to 
the presence of sulphur. No doubt it was all lava 
once, for here is the self-evident bed of the old 
crater — a level area now grown over with myrtles 
and arbutus, and the white-belled heather. Alto- 
gether it is a pretty spot, and has a retort-house 
at one end where the finest crystals of the mineral 
are obtained for commerce. . They showed us a 
vent on the hill which emits smoke whenever 
Vesuvius is clear, but when he puffs away is quiet : 
so there must be some communication, probably 
submarine. The intervening distance may be 
twenty miles. A little farther on is the Lago 
d'Agnano, a tidy piece of water, where wildfowl 
are preserved for the practice of the royal fowling- 
piece. I was desirous to embark on its surface, 


NAPLES. 15«' 

and look for the vestiges of a Roman villa said to 
be still visible under the wave; but the game- 
keeper negatived this proposal, alleging that we 
should scare his feathered charge. On the banks 
of this little lake the Solfatcrra plays some singular 
irciiks. We went into the u Grotta del Cane" 
with the man who keeps these unfortunate animals 
for experiments; he had two with him, one a 
veteran who had seen five years of the service, 
the other a raw recruit; this latter he seized by 
the legs and laid on its back on the bare earth ; 
after a few struggles the creature went into a 
dead swoon, but on being brought again into the 
outer air revived rapidly: he had had about a 
minute of it. A lighted torch carried in was 
instantly extinguished, and on the smoke precipi- 
tating, our eyes were made aware of the nature of 
the agent at work. The white vapour lay like a 
napkin extended in the air at about two feet from 
the ground, supported by a layer of carbonic acid 
gas underneath. This gas rises from the floor in 
small bubbles, which then burst : the layer is piled 
at the inner extremity of the little cavern, and 
slopes downward towards the door ; when this is 
left open, the gas being heavy flows out like a 


river, and may be traced by a chemical test for 
some distance. A human subject standing erect 
within the cave is safe from its noxious effects, as 
it does not rise above the knee ; but poor doggie 
comes in for the full benefit. The creature who 
endures it longest is a snake, and after him a frog. 
A dog will not live over four minutes. 

Nothing would induce my terrier " Fox " even 
to put his nose in at the threshold; the other 
two howled piteously. If you stoop and dash up 
a handful of the gas in your face, the sensation 
resembles that of brisk soda water; it causes 
sharp appetite, and the dogs need to be fed di- 
rectly after recovering from their partial asphyxia. 
" Fiat experimentum in corpore vili " is the bene- 
volent rule here. Another cavern is impregnated 
with ammonia, and animals immersed in this will 
not live so long. I carried in a locust, an insect 
which abounds in the grass and bushes hereabouts : 
he died to all appearance in a few seconds ; but, 
on my bringing him into fresh air, thought better 
of it, and presently flew away. 

The Lago cCAvemo has the Sibyl's bath, and 
some remains of her palace in a deep woody re- 
cess. After passing the outer grotto, or " Nym- 

NAPLES. 155 

phamm," you enter on a dark passage winding 
under low arches. Here the tourist mounts pick-a- 
back, and is carried in by a man stripped to the knee 
through water a foot and a half deep into Sibyl's 
chamber, where sure enough is an ancient bath hewn 
in the stone. The smoke of the torches, which are 
absolutely necessary to produce a glimmer in this 
pitchy grotto, made the trajet to and fro Sibylla's 
bathing-quarters anything but agreeable. It must 
not, however, be supposed that she dwelt in the 
darkness of " Stygian care forlorn : " a door now 
closed up by masonry no doubt once led to better 
apartments. Malaria, so destructive here in Vir- 
gil's day, is prodigiously active still. From hence 
we wandered on with donkeys as far as Cuma. 
Here was her " domus," and many of the " centum 
ostia" remain in the shape of apertures in the 
cliff terminating in a kind of gallery. I followed 
one of these for fifty yards till fallen blocks im- 
peded farther ingress; but I saw traces of a 
communication with another similar grotto. No 
doubt the cunning prophetess had a complete laby- 
rinth, of which none knew the secret but herself. 
Part of a flight of steps is visible, perhaps the 
grand staircase leading to the lady's first-floor. 


The cliff outside bears a massive ruin, comprising 
a tower. Here amid violets and the bramble-rose, 
poppies and scabii, I found the bee-orchis in great 
beauty: I am sorry to say both the specimens I 
gathered here perished ; I put them in an empty 
cigar-case, and afterwards inadvertently sat upon 
it. Before leaving, I bought of an excavator a 
pair of beautiful vases just out of the earth. From 
the cliff we had a view of the tomb of Scipio 
Africanus at Liternum along the shore. Here he 
lived and died an exile in his villa : a slate found 
with part of the well-known inscription, " Ingrata 
Patria, ne ossa quidem mea lmbebis," identified the 

The lake which Virgil chose for his Acheron 
modern Italians call Fusaro: it is a fine sheet of 

Styx is a muddy ditch. All possibility of con- 
sidering yourself similarly situated with the Trojan 
hero is cut off by the presence of a pretty Casino 
on the lake ; to which you arc ferried over indeed, 
but not by Charon : this " Vecchio bianco per 
antico pelo " is superseded by hungry Neapolitans, 
who give you a cast for two grani, and then, oh ! 
horror of horrors ! you actually fall to and devour 

NAPLES. 157 

eels and oysters with glasses of real Falernian, a 
wine which, when genuine, is delicious. The fish 
are fattened in the lake, and you choose them 
while swimming about in their baskets. 

Thus all tourists play the knave in matter of 
romance : after a couple of hours on donkey-back 
over Phlegraean fields poor humanity prevails, and 
you prefer a snack with your roguish guide and 
half-clad boatmen, to feasting on high remembrances 
of CaBsar and the Scipios, iEneas and the Sibyl. 

The modern Italian is not, however, so deter- 
mined an epicure as he of old Rome. A " festa" 
always implies society, among the lower classes 
generally a wedding. Lucullus no longer dines 
with Lucullus; and for ordinary days the popu- 
lation are abstemious. A single cup of " caff& nero" 
in the morning, a plain dinner, and light supper 
suffice the better sort : the poorer are content with 
macaroni, pomi d'oro, and cold water. The royal 
table, I am told, is one of the simplest in Naples. 

A trip made to Pcestum a few weeks since 
repaid us with more interest than any three days' 
excursion I can remember since the Highlands 
of Inverary. Saving Pompeii there is perhaps 


nothing in this country so well worth visiting. 
Putting up at Salerno as our head- quarters, we 
took the opportunity of seeing the Monastery of 
La Cava, as also the " grotto of the Capucines " 
at Amalfi. The former of these is very beautifully 
situated in Salvator Rosa's country, and possesses 
one of the finest organs in Italy, from which we 
were treated to an anthem: this instrument they 
say contains 6000 pipes, a number which sounds 
scarcely credible. The ascent to the church is by 
a winding path through some copscwood, and up a 
steep sandstone cliff. A stream brawls below, and 
the Frati have widened it into a small lake under 
the convent windows, which serves for a store-pond. 
A considerable mass of the tufo-rock projects into 
a chapel within the transept line ; here in a deep 
recess lies the body of Alpherius their first Abbot, 
whom the inscription on his tomb declares to have 
reached the age of 120. They have a noble choir, 
as usual in black walnut. A storm of wind and 
rain set in while we were there, and on coming out 
of the church porch we had the satisfaction of 
witnessing an ample distribution to some fifty poor 
people. Two huge metal panniers were emptied 
among them, one yielding pea-soup, the other 

NAPLES. 151) 

hunches of bread. The establishment is one of 

There is one feature in Salerno which must I 
think strike every one who passes a day there: 
I do not mean its glorious bay, but the suffering 
poor who throng its streets and churches. I never 
met anywhere so many and sad specimens of 
burdened, poverty-stricken, diseased humanity in 
a population of the same size. In the cathedral 
they filled the lower end of the nave, clustered in 
groups round the pillars, and with importunate 
cries and gestures indicating famine, almost threw 
themselves upon us when we gave them such 
carlincs as we had. I never felt so forcibly the 
utter inadequacy of a passing aid: alas! the 
company we saw, to say nothing of scores in 
the town alleys, would need 100 dollars per 
month to give them bread. They do not, I fear, 
get as many carlincs : what is everybody's business 
is nobody's business ; and the very flagrancy of the 
case, the undisguised fact that one-third of the 
population are starving mendicants, renders habitual 
lookers-on indifferent. The Syndicate leave it to 
the Church ; the Church casts the burden on the 
Public ; the Public is an " abstraction " and does 


not recognise the evil though it is gnawing at the 
roots of society. The mischief is aggravated and 
made hopeless by the natural turn which all 
Italians have for begging ; a trade which they ply 
apart from any necessity and without compunction. 
In a certain sense all classes, save the affluent, beg ; 
your servant receiving regular wages expects a 
" regalo " every now and then, and if you do not 
give it him will openly show his discontent; the 
shopboy who carries a light parcel a hundred yards 
will not leave your door without " una bottiglia," 
an absurd phrase as they are not given to drinking : 
women sitting spinning at their threshold beg 
abjectly as you pass; every child will try the 
effect of importunity with the everlasting demand 
for " qualche cosa : " what they get they run with 
to the lotteries, which are open in every street 
in the kingdom. What is wanted is a firm magis- 
tracy animated by church principles : but where can 
this be found ? 

In England we have it not, at least not practi- 
cally developed. True, there is with us the 
vigorous tone of public feeling, and the pleadings 
of natural affection find utterance through an 
unshackled press: but still we lack the prompt 

NAPLES. 161 

operation of a system of ordinances — a body of 
men, ministers of mercy, at once free and re- 
sponsible: and of this no voluntary society, no 
band of Commissioners, can supply the place. 

Moreover, such organised body will need to be 
permanent, for " the poor shall never depart out 
of thy land," Voluntary societies, or charitable 
individuals, cannot be treated as responsible: com- 
missioners appointed by the state are not free, for 
they are bounded by the letter of their instructions. 
The idea in my mind is a ministry ; in one word, 
the Poor of Christ have a claim on us for a 


God grant wc may set our shoulder in earnest 
to this ! 

In France the law and police are all-powerful, 
but cruel. I saw fewer beggars in Germany than 

As for Southern Italy, it would be matter for 
marvel if you were to stroll a hundred yards or meet 
a group of half a dozen persons without being re- 
minded of your purse and teased to open it. The 
warm climate, the cheapness of food, perhaps more 
than all the influx of tourists, encourage this ruinous 
propensity, whose fruit is emaciated faces and 



squalid rags. I grieve to say the King farms the 
lotteries : yet they say he has a kind heart and will 
hardly bring himself to sign a sentence of death. 
But the people are his property, ergo their money 
is his, and he drains it into his lotteries, and there- 
with pays troops to keep them in order ; if order that 
can be called which is dishonest greediness in the 
trading middle classes, and careless, cureless, hope- 
less misery among the lower. 

Pcestum is along forty miles distant from Salerno. 
We started at daybreak and found a tolerable road 
as far as the little river Sele, where there is a ferry 
to be crossed before doing the last four miles to 
Paestum. Here a disagreeable scene occurred: a 
deep stream, burning sun, cold wind, rickety boat, 
jibbing horses, capricious driver, cheating boatmen, 
and a bank at once precipitous and muddy. 

Two precious hours were lost before we got fairly, 
or foully, over with our vehicle and horses, there 
being none on the other side. I must not omit to 
mention one charm of the stream, a movable column 
of biting flies. 

A suspension-bridge is in progress of erection, 
which may one day make the fortune of an ad- 
venturous innkeeper. The country after this is flat 

NAVLES. 163 

marsh sprinkled with low bushes ; on the right is 
the bay, on the left a line of forked hills. The 
"rosaria Passti " are gone, but the rushy swamp bore 
in place of them a profusion of jonquils. Here was 
also that pretty aquatic plant, the bog-bean. 

Stopping our vehicle at the country inn, we took 
a " cicerone " with us half a mile farther to view 
the Temples. If I were asked to define first-rate and 
second-rate "lions," I should say the former always 
surpass your previous expectations while the latter 
fall far below them. Here is Phistu, Poseidonia, 
Pcestum — according as your thoughts run more on 
the Etruscan, Greek, or Roman era : and glorious 
must the city have been if it corresponded in its 
general aspect with the majestic features which are 
still extant and legible at fifty miles' distance.* 

Of the three structures so much admired by 
architects and connoisseurs, the one nearest to the 
Sele is called " Ceres' Temple," and that farthest 
off is supposed to have been a " Basilica; " but of 
all this nothing is known. The very name of the 
city, however, leaves no room to doubt that the 
middle Temple, by far the noblest of the three, was 
dedicated to Neptune. It was this which engrossed 
our attention, as I suppose it does that of every. 

M 2 


one, almost exclusively. It is certainly the most 
beautiful building we have seen. The pediment is 
uninjured, and the outer columns are complete, 
with nearly the whole of the architrave and 
frieze. As far as I could tell by stepping the 
ground, the length of the temple is about 150 feet 
within, and its breadth sixty : height of the pedi- 
ment perhaps fivc-and-forty. This for a Grecian 
temple, which did not intend an assembly of 
worshippers within its walls, was large. The 
order is Doric, the columns being short and thick- 
set, and consequently of immense strength. The 
frieze and architrave together are fully half the 
altitude of a column, which gives the temple 
rather a heavy look, specially when seen from 
above. It reminded me in its form of a vessel on 
the stocks. It is hardly fair to compare anything 
with the fa§ade of the Pantheon ; but the Psestum 
structure, though certainly inferior in sublimity, 
is far beyond it in beauty. Neither is the sublime 
lacking in that long row of columns. Of beauty 
it has every attribute : exquisite proportions of 
outline, a variety of shifting tints, and a natural 
colour in the stone of a deep orange harmonising 
admirably with the purple and green meadows. 

NAPLES. 165 

This stone is from the bed of Salzo or Sele, an 
origin demonstrable by the petrified vegetable 
substances with which it abounds : it is very hard 
in texture, the edges of the fluting in the columns 
being but little injured. Within the main circuit 
wc found great part of a court on a raised terrace, 
and smaller columns and an architrave supporting 
a few of a second story. Part of the building was 
overgrown with bramble and wild olive, and 
around lie the marshy pools where the buffaloes 
repair to drink and wallow in the mud. Beyond 
the line of the fen the horizon is formed by the 
swelling Mediterranean. In certain lights the 
orange hue of the temple is melted down to lilac. 
Wc dared not stay till sunset, but took our leave at 
4 p. m. In summer the " Malaria" from the marsh, 
which is of the most deadly description, drives 
nearly every soul away till October. They have 
not, however, far to go, retiring merely to the 
shelter of some cottages, which skirt the side of an 
adjacent mountain. An oak forest fringes the 
base of this line of hills, well-stocked with wild 
boars and forming a royal chase. The French- 
man employed on engineering at the suspension- 
bridge told me that all the smaller game is free, 

M 3 


and that he shoots as many snipe, woodcock, and 
quail as he can eat — which must be a good many, 
for Frenchmen have capacious stomachs for 
" volaille." 

This village has a mournful celebrity of its own 
in modern times. It was here that poor young 
Hunt and his wife were murdered by some brigands 
whom he was so unwise as to provoke. 

You should never say " perch6 ? " to an armed 
Italian. It seems they struck his servant, and H. 
lost his temper, and forgot the vehemence of their 
national character. The popular version of their 
having meddled with jewels on his wife's person is 
incorrect. The event at the time filled Naples with 
consternation. At present you meet with no bri- 
gands, but you must equally make up your mind 
to empty your purse of its contents. Every man, 
woman, and child here is a practised and deter- 
mined beggar. The very dogs will have food or a 
battle. Your guide, whose ignorance is translucent, 
is worst of all ; and mine host of the inn makes 
double charges, and then, on your refusing to pay 
them, professes the innocence and inexperience of 
a babe. 

On our return from Paestuni we visited 

NAPLES. 167 

Amalfi ; it was one of those delicious days when 
sky and water combine to produce an effect which 
can hardly be rendered in a painting. The trans- 
parency of the wave, the pearly radiance of the 
shore, the opal tints on the hills, with a heaven 
whose blue seemed melted down in a way unknown 
in our latitudes — it was Italy all over, glowing 
Italy ! in her most attractive summer garb. We 
had a boat manned with six oars to row the 
fourteen miles which intervene. I found the 
charge for this to Amalfi and back was a guinea ; 
but then we had seven men, counting the steers- 
man, and a handsome awning, and they performed 
the distance either way in a couple of hours. The 
folk here row with the backwater stroke, standing 
up with their faces toward the prow ; one foot is 
advanced and an impulse is given by rising on the 
instep ; perfect time is kept by those who row, and 
when they slack their efforts the steersman animates 
them with the cry of " maccheroni," which they all 
take up. I envied them their light and picturesque 
dress ; the white shirt and trowsers form one piece 
fastened at the waist by a coloured sash. Shoes 
and stockings they don't trouble themselves about, 

M 4 


but all wear a pendent cap to protect their head 
from the vertical ray. 

The rocks and caves of Amalfi are worthy of 
Switzerland ; one of the latter, called the " Capa- 
cities' Grotto" because connected with their con- 
vent, is a stupendous vaulted chamber in the 
mountain's side: from its mouth you get one of 
the finest seaward prospects in the whole country. 

In this town we went to see the Fabbrica of the 
best maccaroni in Italy. The process is a simple 
one: an enormous pressure is employed to drive 
the paste through the ring whose centre is 
solid ; about a hundred pipes are driven at 
once by using a form thick-set with such rings. 
There are many varieties, both as to calibre 
and quality. After this we ate of a new dress- 
ing of this national dish at the H6tel de la 
Lune, {mem. a roguish inn, but comfortable,) to 
wit, tossed in a bowl with fresh butter and eggs. 
This is the third way wc have tried it. The Nea- 
politans prefer it with " Sugo " and Pomi d'oro. 
Perhaps the most delicate is the simple fashion of 
plain boiled, with fresh butter and pounded parme- 
san in separate dishes. The English method of a 
hot brown fry, redolent of strong cheese, is intoler- 


able. I should add there is yet another, favoured 
by the common people. This is, almost raw, with 
a little oil, and large draughts of cold water. 
Amalfi itself is, I am sorry to say, dirty, very dirty, 
unconscionably dirty, in fact, an Augean stables. 
It reminded me of an unwashed hand bedizened 
with jewels ; for all around is fresh, pure, and 
sparkling. The Italians one and all hate washing, 
until the time comes for government to bid the 
Stuffi and Bagni open, when I hear they are amphi- 
bious. We rowed into a sea-cave on our return : 
some hundred feet long, and I suppose 90 feet over- 
head. Here were dropping stalactites, green and 
azure water, vermilion funguses, coral, &c. Not 
far off is the " Buco," where the wave dashing in 
through an orifice in the rock gives a report as 
loud as a gun. 

As we neared Salerno, we called on the boatmen 
for a song. They gave us two or three : " II carn- 
panello," " Ti voglio ben," &c. ; one. voice, that of a 
youth, was clear and sweet, which the delighted 
father, who steered, never failed to point out by 
rapturous exclamations of " Lo figlio ! & lui stesso! " 
The chorus was noisy, but fair enough in an open 
boat and after five-and-twenty miles' rowing. 


Amidst this fairy-like scenery the compass was 

This reminds me we must leave Naples in a few 
days, as the lava-pavement in the Chiaja is of a 
white heat, and the sea is approaching that happy 
condition when it is said to take fire. 



Here is a spot within a few miles of the mainland, 
but with a perfectly different style of features in 
its scenery. It is not Italian, it is not Swiss ; I am 
told it resembles Greece, and the moonlight view of 
Casamicciola from a cliff above has sometimes re- 
minded me of sketches which I have seen of that 

The people of the island moreover are Greek by 
extraction, and though the original stock has since 
been grafted with so many strange slips, still the 
intervention of a considerable arm of the sea, and 
certain primitive habits surviving among the peo- 
ple, keep them a distinct race in many respects. 

ISCHIA. 171 

The Ischiotc is less sophisticated than the Nea- 
politan : he is every inch as greedy and as much 
bent on roguish tricks, but he is not so " rus6 ; " 
his mind has not worked so hard in the winding 
ways of deceit. 

Naples is now a furnace, and this island is at 
once cheap and interesting. The living is in 
some departments better than in the metropolis. 
If you want veal, fine butter, or good beer, you 
must order them from Naples; but if you are con- 
tent with bread and eggs, poultry and small birds, 
abundance of fish, and a profusion of fruit and 
vegetables, you may get fat here, yet be as free of 
the big city as Robinson Crusoe on his lone island. 
Grocery, it is true, you must have ; but the wiser 
plan is to bring a two months' stock with you 
when you first come ; and then, if any is left, you 
can bless some simple household with it on de- 
parting. As for fish, Lucullus or Apicius should 
have passed a season, here. We have whiting, 
mackerel, red mullet, sardines, anchovies, lampreys, 
Peter-fish, crabs, needle-nose, and perhaps half-a- 
dozen more sorts of which I do not even know the 
names. Then the tunny-nets are out all day, and 
yield the base of a delicious pickle. All these 


might be had in Naples, if the fishermen had 
courage to venture out farther into the bay ; but, 
though the best swimmers in the world, they fear 
the storms on the Mediterranean, and not without 
reason. For fruit we have cherries, strawberries, 
apricots, and plums, and figs better than I ever 
ate anywhere. Grapes to eat are not yet well in, 
but some capital wine is made here from the true 
Falernian, white and red. The way of life among 
the poorer classes, and they immensely outnumber 
the others, is simple and uniform. 

After the brilliant bustle of Naples, it is pleasing 
to watch the homely labours of a population of not 
more than 8000 or 9000 adults ; yielding, indeed, 
only a small item in the cargoes that throng the 
port of Naples, but sufficing to sustain the 
islanders, and presenting here and there the 
cheerful and healthy images of patriarchal life. 
During working hours almost every man in Casa- 
micciola is- driving an ass or making bricks : and 
every woman or child that you meet carries on 
their head the immemorial pitcher [note(#)], which 
obtained for this island the name of Pithecusa in 
days of old. Elsewhere, the husbandry of crops 
and vines is going on ; and perhaps a tenth of the 

iscuiA. 173 

entire male population are employed in fishing off 
the coast. The donkeys during the day are all on 
one errand; that of bringing up barrels of the 
mineral waters, hot and cold, to give you a 
bath " chcz vous." But when pearly evening sets 
iij, this drudgery ceases, and both "cucci" and 
" cucciaji " find another and a pleasanter occupation 
in convoying groups of tourists over the most 
picturesque spots of the isle. It nowhere looks 
like a solitude. Beside scores of scattered hamlets 
there arc a few sizeable towns. Ischia, the capital, 
has a castellated fortress, rock-built amid the 
waves; Foria is cradled among fine bays; Lacco 
lies under the shelter of a promontory; Casa- 
micciola, the main bathing-resort, covers some 
undulating ground, and partly fills a ravine. All 
parts are perforated with " stufi," and teem with 
mineral baths. Here are " fumaroles," " venta- 
rolcs," hot fountains, cold fountains, lava-rocks, 
clay-pits, and plenty of lodging-houses. Tradition 
avers that Ischia rose from the bottom of the sea, 
and the constant occurrence of marine shells in 
all the clay-pits favours the theory. I should refer 
their presence to volcanic action, which we know 
draws largely on the sea and its cpntents. 


In fact the entire island, not much above five miles 
long, is an extinct volcanic pile, having the apex of 
the Epomeo, some 2500 feet high, in its centre, and 
its slopes diversified with mounds of lava and beds 
of scoriae more or less ancient. Between these lie 
endless ridges and ravines, which, during a repose 
of more than two thousand years from eruptions, 
have grown bushy with the Spanish chestnut and 
myrtle, the aloe and the cactus. The higher 
moors are covered with arbutus and broom, and 
every nook and crevice of the rocks teem with a 
scented flora. The acanthus is now in bloom, and 
it is a gorgeous plant. Goats' milk here is abun- 
dant and delicious, owing to the profuse supply of 
mint, thyme, and other aromatic herbs. Perhaps 
the leading features of beauty in the scenery of 
Ischia are its jutting capes and little marine bays 
and inlets. The bay of Santa Bestituta equals in 
wild loveliness any spot I know. The rocks which 
occur near Foria } as you descend from the Epomeo, 
are worthy of Savoy. Lacco has its singular 
stone in the sea, resembling the doddered trunk of 
some primeval tree ; and you can scarce look aloft 
without encountering the soaring peaks of the 
Epomeo, white as Dover cliff. 


isciiiA. 175 

Perhaps, as every place has a drawback, it may 
be as well to mention that of Pithecusa, or it might 
be deemed the terrestrial paradise. Venomous 
insects and reptiles are as plenty as blackberries. 
Scorpions are a populous nation; hornets, a count- 
less tribe ; of vipers there is a decent sprinkling : 
mosquitoes, of course. Despite the heat of the 
weather I laughed the other day till I almost 
dropped off my chair at the nocturnal adventures 
of a gentleman and lady who passed a night on 
the island in lodgings, as they thought very nice 
ones. Scorpions love lamplight, or the smell of 
oil, I don't know which, perhaps both : on retiring 
to rest, the above-named couple became aware 
of sundry black things about an inch and a half 
long with pincers in front and a long tail behind 
skirmishing about the floor and walls of their 
dormitory. It was no use thinking to sleep amidst 
such visitors ; and as to killing those that were 
visible and then putting out the light, that would 
little avail, for others might come when it was 
dark and bite them. 

They wisely determined to pass the night like 
wakeful naturalists; so the lady made herself as 
comfortable as she could under the circumstances, 


and the gentleman provided himself with a glass 
decanter from the toilet-table and commenced a 
Scorpion-chasse. He nabbed so many before- 
morning that when day broke the landlady, who 
had vowed her apartments to be a faultless paragon 
of comfort, was presented by her sleepless lodger 
with a pint-bottle nearly full of live Scorpions. 

The only remedy for the sting of these creatures 
is ammonia applied externally on the instant. 
From all I can learn the poison of the old ones is 
very virulent : with a child it might probably be 
fatal by inducing fever. 

The truth is, however, they rarely harm any one, 
owing to their not being molested. The people of the 
island will sometimes pronounce all the tribes harm- 
less: but this is a specimen of " favete Unguis " in the 
Irish style. I observe they take special care not 
to meddle with them, save as we say " with a pair 
of tongs." From a viper they will run away. Scor- 
pions if found within doors die the death ; hornets 
they hold it " unlucky " to touch. We have had 
one very large viper killed in the courtyard, and 
I have despatched half a dozen scorpions, one a 
Nestor, in our rooms. The hornets are enormous : 
I have counted on the vine in the balcony above a 

ISCHIA. 177 

score of these within a quarter of an hour, but they 
never come in at the windows, though always set 

Your scorpion is an ugly beast : he has eight 
legs, showing his close affinity with the spider, and 
runs very fast, backwards and sideways as well 
as forwards. Their greatest pleasure is to get be- 
tween your sheets, or lie curled on a pillow. The 
people of this house vow they have wings, but that 
is a mistake. 

The sandfly by the bye is something worse than 
a mosquitoe, as he burrows under the skin. 

The origin of the people in this isle is no doubt 
Greek : and modern travellers aver that the Greeks 
are rogues. It may be so, but I vow they do not 
stand first on the list. Clearly the Neapolitans 
lead, and nine-tenths of the roguery here is impor- 
ted from Parthenope. The Ischiote, however, is a 
lover of fun, and delights to join in a practical joke 
at the expense of Neapolitan greediness and extor- 
tion. A friend has furnished me with the follow- 
ing anecdote for the truth of which he vouches. 
It may serve to help gentlemen who are embar- 
rassed in a similar way ; so I quote it out of pure 
benevolence. A visitor here from the mainland 



put up at the house of a Neapolitan, who engaged 
to find him in board and lodging for a certain 
sum : he was so unguarded as to pledge himself to 
a stay of two months. No sooner was the agree- 
ment signed than he found he had fallen into bad 
hands. Without infringing the letter of their 
compact, his landlord managed to break it in spirit 
every day. The guest was an invalid, and whole- 
some diet was indispensable : but he could obtain 
no butter but what was rancid, no meat but what 
smelt above ground. Complaints were idle, for 
the only reply was, " If you object to your fare pay 
me my two months' rent and go." 

In this dilemma between regard for his health 
and a due care for his purse, he applied to a friend 
for counsel;' and returned to his " appartamento/ 
resolved to all appearance to fight it out. 

Next day, he had a large table laid out in the 
best room, and plentifully spread with " macaroni " 
and pitchers of wine. " 1 am of a hospitable turn," 
said he to the host ; " a party of my friends will 
arrive to-day, and we shall commence a series of 
entertainments which I propose to prolong while 
under your roof." At the appointed hour came a 
troop of donkey-men and brick-makers, with a 

isciiia. 179 

pair of fiddlers: a tremendous onslaught on the 
viands was followed up with stoups of liquor ; and 
then the music opened, and dancing commenced, 
the landlord looking on without a remedy. 

After witnessing the overthrow of table and 
chairs amid a performance worthy of Comus's rabble 
rout, and remembering his tenant's parting speech 
in the morning, the Neapolitan gave in ; and the 
invalid received " carte blanche" to cancel his 
agreement and retreat to other quarters. 

Knowing of what the Ischiotes are capable, I 
would have given a good deal to see the party 
when the fun was at its height. I can just fancy 
the nods and becks which they would throw at the 
sulky Neapolitan. 

Donkey-riding here is delightful. You start 
about £ past 5 in the evening, and may be out till 
near 8, when the dew becomes heavy. The number 
of paths up the mountain is considerable, and some 
of these yield very pretty excursions. If you take 
the coast-road you get the sea-breeze and meet the 
people in groups, dressed in their bright costume 
whenever it is a festa. 

The prospect is from many points magnificent : 
one of the sweetest views is from a knoll behind 

M 2 


the Lago d'Ischia; but from Vico, from Mount 
Tabor, from the Rotaro, above all from the Epomeo's 
summit, the tourist will be delighted and the artist 
astonished, whether he looks landsward toward 
Vesuvius, or seaward beyond Ventotene. We had 
heard of sunsets in the sea, but I had no idea what 
they were like till we saw some here : a segment of 
50 degrees over the horizon lit up with orange and 
gold, while the huge disk glowing like a carbuncle 
plunges into the wave ! 


End of July. 

We shall leave this island to-day; after having 
fought three nights with the mosquitoes, who are 
many and determined, without the protection of a 
gauze-net, the people here not having one. These 
insects have a singular sort of discernment : they 
always attack a stranger or new-comer, while the 
Aborigines are rarely troubled by them. 

We have seen no scenery equal to this in Italy, 

CAPJU. 181 

or rather, nothing resembling it in character. It 
bears no geological affinity to that of Ischia : the 
rocks which form the island run in a continuous 
lofty ridge, from East to West, meeting the sqa with 
precipices at cither extremity. Southward, looking 
towards Sicily, the cliffs are still bold and pre- 
cipitous. On the Naples side there is a break in 
the barrier, and the gigantic wall has given place 
to long lines of slope, interspersed with the most 
beautiful rockwork, and covered with brilliant ver- 
dure. The caves and grottoes have delighted every 
soul from Augustus to Shelley. Owing to the sin- 
gular angles and curved recesses here formed by 
the rock, the colours on the water are marvellous ; 
they are finest at mid-day, and have sometimes re- 
minded me of what one has heard of a dying 
dolphin. Our first visit was to the " Grotta az- 
zurra." Two little cobles, each carrying a boatman 
and a tourist, took us in under an archway of about 
3 feet high by as many wide. This is the only 
entrance or exit, and with the least roughness of 
the sea you can neither go in nor, if in, come out. 
We glided in on a surface as smooth as glass, and 
then saw the singular effect which has given the 
cavern its name. Owing to the smallness of the 

w 3 


aperture, nearly all the light which enters is re- 
flected from the bottom of the sea upwards, passing 
through 20 or 30 feet deep of pellucid water, and 
strikes on the vaulted roof of limestone, from which 
it is again reflected downwards. This results in 
the most vivid blue conceivable in the basin round 

Probably the sky-tints in this latitude are partly 
referrible to the same cause, a great deal of light 
being transmitted from the bottom of the shores 
and bays round Naples: but no sky ever ex- 
hibited a blue of this peculiar character. I have 
seen an enamel something like it, and the scale of 
a fish when wet approaches it, but neither of these 
can impress you with the sense of being enveloped 
in a totally new atmosphere. 

I think if a broad plate of mother-of-pearl were 
passed through the blue of the " spectrum " and 
waved up and down in it, it would be much like 
the water in the grotto. When stirred by an oar 
or other object, the flash and bubbles resembled 
the coruscations of the Bude light. Outside of 
this cavern the scene was scarce inferior in beauty : 
scarlet funguses were clinging on the water-line : 
diminutive flying-fish threw themselves by twos 

CAPRI. 183 

and threes out of the sea, describing a small arc 
ere they fell, and as our boat drove a ripple into 
the bay or threw the wave like a living emerald on 
the rock, the whispering sound among pebbles and 
tiny shells was as music in some home of the 

The spot called the "Arco Naturale," from a 
curious portal pierced in the limestone, was our 
next expedition. No one who does not visit it 
can conceive the beauty of this. With exemplary 
zeal I effected a water-colour sketch here under a 
vertical sun which very nearly changed me into an 

Close by in the " Grotta del Matrimonio " is the 
mouth of a fosse where Tiberius consigned to a 
cruel death some scores of his temporary spouses. 
Bluebeard was nothing to this monster, and even 
to this day Capri is at a disadvantage from his 
prolonged sojourn in it, for many will not tread 
where such a wild beast has once set his foot : nor 
indeed would I, but that I hold the surface of the 
ground to be altered. One of his grandest palaces 
stood on the summit of the eastern rock, which 
looks forth like a watch-tower toward the rising 
of the sun. This spot now possesses a consecrated 

H 4 


building, and at 2 A. M. this morning we were 
off on donkey-back to clamber up to it and see the 
" Spuntar del Sole." After a ride of an hour and 
a half through the heavy dews, we reached the 
cliff-head one hour too soon. The hermit padre 
Paolo, who dwells here always, gave us a shelter 
in the Chapel, and entertained us kindly till the 
mighty luminary announced his approach by a 
bright suffusion of yellow over the eastern horizon. 
The tableau was glorious as he cleared the hills of 
Amalfi and Sorrento and spread, to our eyes, a 
mist over the low-lying valleys. Soon the sea 
flushed and warmed, the hills and shore caught 
form and colour, and the vast reach of the Medi- 
terranean changed from a dull leaden surface to 
heaving azure billows. 

Before descending we went over part of the 
ruined Palace. There are several courts on a large 
scale, and two wheel-ruts are visible on a mosaic 
road, which actually plunged from the edge of 
the cliff, and wound down to the shore a thousand 
feet below. On the floor of a court we saw four 
natives dance the " Tarantella." A woman beat 
the time to a rude measure on the tambourine ; 
the steps are free and graceful ; the shy looks of 

iscJiiA. 185 

the woman and the vehement attitudes of the man 
are intended to represent a courtship. 

They dance it on the sea-shore at Ischia, but I 
think hardly so well as here. 



How hard it is to say farewell for ever to a dear 
friend ! and such has this pretty island now be- 
come to us. A summer season has flown by since 
wc first set foot on the Epomco ; the myrtles were 
then in bloom, and the arbutus was putting forth 
its tender shoots to solace the goats: now the 
purple berry hangs on the myrtle, and the arbutus 
bears clusters of ripe fruit like the largest coral 
bead. The becafique has given place to the quail, 
and the quail to the woodcock, and already the 
water-rail and speckled thrush, sure precursors of 
winter, are found in the neighbourhood. The 
glorious sunsets in the sea have been succeeded by 
the flushes and lurid gleams which attend a 
storm on the Mediterranean; and the chestnut 


woods skirting the Epomeo are no longer dark 
green, but an umber red. The shifting of the 
season is visible in tokens yet more familiar ; the 
pretty moth so abundant here, which the house- 
holders call " angiolo," and regard as a lucky fairy, 
is less lively; he no longer hums round our 
curtains, or creeps in and out of the key-hole, but 
has taken to dozing on the window-pane: the 
lizard from a restless flirt has become a shy, retiring 
scout, and my special pets, the two gigantic sphyn- 
ges, whom I have so often caught and released 
again, have paid their last visit to the bush of 
crimson marguerites in the garden. 

We have seen nature come and go in some of 
her most winning aspects, and would not like to 
wait her utter decrepitude in the fall of the year. 
Winter here is a terrible time: we are assured 
that every road is broken up, and the mountain- 
paths become utterly impassable from the fury of 
the torrents which then pour down the sides of 
the Epomeo : we have indeed witnessed one speci- 
men lately of what they call their " cattivo tempo : " 
the storm burst forth about 9 p. m. and lasted till 
1 in the morning. The rain fell in absolute spouts 
of water, and the glare of the lightnings with the 

iscoia. 187 

prolonged bellowing of the thunder among the 
crags was awful. The Epomeo seemed like a 
tremendous battery on a battle day. 

What is worse, however, than all this is the 
condition of the poor. We have a pretty large 
acquaintance among them, and many of the old 
and infirm speak of their probably dying from cold 
and starvation. Distress they could scarcely 
escape, but their improvident habits aggravate it 
a hundred-fold. Take a populous instance, the 
donkey-men : these will earn, one day with another, 
during four months, from June to September in- 
clusive, a dollar a-day each of them : of this 
their donkey will require less than a tenth, and 
their family, with management, not quite half. 
They might therefore lay by in these four months 
sixty dollars — above ten guineas of our money, 
but which goes as f&r as five-and-twenty here. I 
am sorry to say they never lay by a farthing, 
serious as they know the " rainy day " will prove. 
Misery follows; of course they must live all the 
winter on tick, and the roguish tradesmen, who 
arc generally Neapolitan speculators, take advan- 
tage to charge them interest, cheat them in the 
price, and put them off with a bad article into the 


bargain. In an argument with a father of a 
family on this subject the other day, when I spoke 
of the coming distress, he said, " Dio me ne 
guardi ! " when I asked him what he would do, it 
was " Iddio sa." But when I exhorted him to lay 
by out of his actual summer receipts, he replied, 
with a shrug of the shoulders, " Non si pu6." 
Next day was his " Giorno di nome " (day of the 
saint whose name he bears), and I saw him ludi- 
crously tipsy, dressed like a merry Andrew, and 
singing aloud between the mouthfuls of macaroni 
which he kept swallowing. I doubt not he spent 
on that day all the ready cash he had, and perhaps 
borrowed more ; for which latter he will have to 
pay interest. 

One trait of the Ischiotc women I must record, 
though I do not know that it bears on this matter 
of the islanders' improvident character, unless it be 
favourably. This is their passion for articles of 
jewellery; especially earrings of the largest size, 
wrought in solid gold and after fantastic patterns. 
Having been obliged to discharge the servant whom 
we brought with us from Naples, on account of 
her flagrant dishonesty, my wife engaged a married 
woman of the island to wait on her. This Teresa 

tsciiia. 180 

has been a great comfort, being a steady, honest, 
hard-working woman. A remark made one day on 
a pair of these enormous pendants drew forth an 
animated account from this young Ischiote of a 
similar pair, an heirloom in her mother's family, 
which were made over to herself upon the occasion 
of her marriage. It seems they had somehow 
found their way to the pawnbrokers', and a con- 
siderable time elapsed before they could be re- 
deemed. During this trying season Teresa took to 
her bed and mourned like a widowed dove over 
the absent treasure. She summed up her story 
with the words, " Questo mi ha fatto molto 
male ! " 

During the past week we have had the vintage in 
Gasamicciola, and a pretty sight it has been. As 
I never witnessed one before, I took care to be 
present at all the stages of the operation: from 
gathering to carting, from carting to vatting, from 
vatting to pressing, and finally the barrelling off 
of this precious nectar. The scene in the wine- 
press is well worth witnessing once. The bunches 
being thrown in, men and boys follow, after 
stripping to the knee and being carefully washed 
in fair water — a fact this which I vouch for: hear 


it, ye bakers and brewers of " Auld Reekie," and 
reform your ways ! Some of these turn the stuff 
with pitchforks, while the others dance up and 
down and press out the juice. The vat of our 
host is about twelve feet square, and stands under 
a covered shed, with a simple arrangement for 
letting out the liquor afterwards into a lower reser- 
voir, and a cross-beam and millstone for bringing a 
heavy pressure to bear upon the grape-skins. 

During the process of treading, the door of the 
shed was kept wide open ; yet the fumes which 
rose were so strong that all the treaders soon became 
inebriated, or, as they term it, " allcgri." From a 
modest silence they passed to singing, and from 
singing to vociferous shouting. The scene brought 
forcibly to my mind divers passages in Holy Writ. 
After some hours of this, the juice was withdrawn, 
and strained through a wicker basket as it fell into 
the reservoir below. Then all was brought up 
again by buckets and thrown on the skins which 
lay in the bottom of the vat. Here it was left for 
six days, the doors of the shed being closed and 
locked upon it. At the end of this period the 
shed was re-opened, a heavy pressure by a flat 
surface applied to the heap, and the liquor flowed 


forth as clear as cider. This was stowed away 
in huge barrels, which were finally bunged up, 
after a small quantity of strong acrid matter 
squeezed from the refuse grape-skins had been in- 
troduced : without this last the wine will not fer- 

It is to be drinkable in two months, and will 
cost about one-fourth of what " small beer" would 
in merry England: it is not, however, nearly so 

Having said thus much of the regular wine of 
Ischia, I shall add that a French merchant who 
is settled here, and has built the largest house in 
the island, and on one of the most beautiful spots, 
grows the Falernian grape, both white and red, 
and makes a delicious wine from it, quite equal to 
Burgundy, and at one-sixth of the cost. He has 
also taught the white to effervesce like Champagne, 
a result achieved by a twofold process in addition 
to the usual steps. The bunches, after being 
plucked from the tree, must lie a whole night on 
a bank exposed to the heavy dews, to charge 
them with carbonic acid gas ; and the bottles when 
filled must be plunged, previous to corking, neck 
downwards, into a pail of fresh spring water. 


At fifteen pence a bottle this beverage is deli- 
cious ; and, what is more, " sincero." 

Whoever passes a month in Ischia should scale 
the Epomeo. I have been up it twice ; once alone, 
when I was favoured with paradise weather and 
saw the wonderful prospect from San NicoUs 
Convent; and again in company, some seven of us 
besides a cook, servants, donkey-men and dogs. 
On this last occasion, as will sometimes happen, 
we were unlucky in our day — a fog escorted by a 
sweeping blast overtook us at Pansa, and by the 
time we reached the summit we were children of 
the mist. There was nothing for it but to dry 
our dresses, dine, and then descend, how we might, 
over ankle-breaking crags and banks of slippery 
clay, to a cup of tea and a nightcap. 

The " giro " of the whole island in an open boat 
is both agreeable and instructive. For the twen- 
tieth time in my life I was within an ace of becom- 
ing a zealous geologist, but escaped it. We 
had many adventures in the course of the day; 
one was disturbing a wasp's nest, when our boat- 
man was stung by one of these insects on the 
cheek; this man, a brave and hardy sailor, and 

isciiia. 193 

built like a wrestler, cried like a child, and we all 
had to set to and comfort him ! 

On the long sandy reach facing Capri we made 
acquaintance with a natural cuisine well known to 
the contadini and fishermen, and large enough to 
dress the victuals of a regiment. Here you need 
neither fuel nor fire, pots nor pans: you have 
only to scoop a hollow in the boiling sand, wrap 
your viands in clean paper, and bury them; twenty 
minutes will cook a fowl, four or five an egg; 
" pomi-d'oro" and such like are done to a turn 
before you can say Jack Robinson. The row in 
an open boat was delightful ; and, rounding the 
last headland, we came on the ruins of the old 
palace of the Bolgars, very interesting to those 
who have heard the story of the fair Restituta, a 
daughter of that house. 



Nature and art combined never produced a more 
beautiful result than this city ; masses of traver- 
tine masonry mingled with groves of orange and 
citron, cover the vast " pianura ; " behind the hills 
sweep in a semicircle ; in front the ocean runs up 
with a delicate loop of blue on bright sands ; and 
far away, a hundred miles as the crow flies, the 
white cone of Etna reflects the ray of the setting 
sun. It would be difficult to describe Belmonte, 
the villa where we are lodged, a mile distant from 
the city. The peerless prospect in front of us, the 
garden laid out round the mansion, the crested 
rockwork and red cliff rising one above the other 
at the back of the pleasure-ground, lower down in 
the vale hundreds of acres bushy with the cactus, 
and as the eye wanders further, to every palace an 
old buttressed wall, and clustering on every wall 
the dark foliage and golden fruit of the orange 
tree, a fairy-tinted sky above, and an air like 
balm, though November's breeze is sighing through 
the olives. It is a spot too beautiful to stay long 


in; so it is fortunate that we are birds of passage. 
In the city all is novel and picturesque. Walk up 
the Via del Toledo and you will get an idea of 
Moorish architecture ; here balconies hang in clus- 
ters like birds'-nests, and every cornice and sup- 
port is carved with grotesque faces in the stone. 
The sides of the trottoir are dappled with shop- 
fronts proclaiming bright colours to be the rage; 
widespread stalls fill every possible and impossible 
place, proffering hot chestnuts to warm you, and 
icy-cold cactus-figs to cool you, with some twenty 
species of pulse, and fish and tobacco ; sunburnt 
men in red and yellow caps lie sprawled in the 
streets; at every window protrudes a woman's 
bust ; around are buildings reared by forgotten 
princes, and inhabited by beggars; the duomo 
with Saracenic towers without, and the appoint- 
ments of a whitewashed barn within ; churches 
gleaming with shrines of agate and gold, a pretty 
botanical garden, a raised terrace by the seaside, 
dirty lodgings, bad hotels; — it is Naples again, 
but Naples in an Arab dress, bedizened with 
jewels, but without bread to eat. The population 
appears even a grade lower than the half-clothed, 
quarter-fed adventurers who lounge in the Chiaja. 

o 2 


The abbey of Monreale demanded our first visit : 
but I shall not describe it, save to say that the 
panellings of the nave are coated with mosaics in a 
finer style even than those we saw in Rome. The 
greatest, because worthiest, name heard here is that 
of Arcldrishop Testa, who during his occupation of 
the See was the friend and father of the poor. lie 
fed them, clothed them, educated them, and plea- 
ded their cause with the mighty. " Ma," added 
our guide, "& morto quelF uomo venerabile, e adesso 
sono ritornati nella miscria." Ccrtes the patriarchal 
dispensation was meant to abide, hi substance, 
under all outward changes : we err in thinking to 
confine its exhibition to the limits of the family, 
or rather sovereigns should remember that for 
them the nation is the family, and that to deem 
otherwise will narrow their minds and cheat them 
of their true dignity. 

Testa lived like a patriarch : his heart expanded 
as his family increased, and the revenues of his 
See, the influence of his name, the fruit of his 
studies, the hours of his time, the watchful travail 
of his spirit, were given to the flock of Christ. 

After Monreale, we started on a visit to the 
Temple of Segesta, fifty miles distant. The drive 

PALERMO. 1 97 

down upon Borghetto and across the Gastellamare 
tract, and the pass of the Monreale, is very fine : 
the latter often reminding me of the pass of Leny 
in Perthshire. The greater part of the landscape 
exhibits open plains interspersed with boulders of 
rock, some of them rising to several hundred feet 
in height, and beautifully coloured. Arrived at 
Ccdatafimi we halted for the night, not without a 
presentiment of what awaited us. The inn, so 
called, is a disorderly cow-house, into which both 
pigs and mules intrude : an abominable loft over- 
head receives you hungry and tired, and here you 
must keep the windows open or else choke. We 
had taken the precaution of bringing our own 
sheets, one of Shamoy leather included, and a few 
ounces of tea : these with patience and hope of the 
morning kept up our courage during a night of 
fierce contention with a marching host. When 
day broke I hailed our landlady with the an-, 
nounccment " Padrona, quanti pulci ! " " Sicuro " 
("to be sure") was her response. And yet you 
are expected to write " contentissimi " opposite 
your names in the travellers' book. But all sub- 
lunary troubles have a limit : as the day broke we 
broke our fast, and were off with mules and a 

o 3 


donkey on a four-mile ride through the early dews 
to the heights above, where once stood Segesta, to 
forget our sleepless sorrows in contemplating a 
Greek Temple and the remains of a theatre. 

How strong has ever been in a Roman mind the 
leaning to omens, specially in the matter of a 
name ! The masters of the world, when they took 
into amity and alliance this city, claiming a com- 
mon origin with themselves in Trojan ancestors, 
shrank from the poverty-stricken sound of "Egesta" 
and rebaptized it u Segcsta." 

Pyrrhus with his elephants, or Hannibal with 
his heavy armed infantry, were scarcely so for- 
midable in the eyes of the S. P. Q. R., as an un- 
lucky crow, or sacred chickens who refused to eat. 
After climbing a pretty stiff brae we came upon 
the classic ground ; a situation as fine as that of 
Paestum, and one calling up grander ideas. 

The Temple is larger in its dimensions than 
that of Neptune, and pure Doric. The columns 
are formed of cylindrical blocks like millstones, of 
very unequal thickness; towards the centre of 
each column there is a considerable bulge: these 
are not channelled, as those at Paestum, but they 
are loftier, and the proportions of the entire struc- 


ture struck me as being more elegant. The quarry 
from which they were hewn lies all around : bend- 
ing strata of calcareous travertine cropping out 
from the mountain's side. 

The effect of the morning light was grand and 
imposing : the Temple looks nearly due North, and 
the sun's rays gilding the colonnade on one side 
projected on the other a beautiful shadow of the 
entire building, pillar, nave and pediment, on the 
grassy slope. This effect is best seen as you de- 
scend the opposite hill, on which the amphitheatre 
stands : the Temple then faces you, and the sha- 
dow is laid down on the right, if the hour be about 
8 A. M. 

The whole thing is as ghostly as Melrose Abbey : 
nothing is here to break the charm of solitude 
which approaches almost to the sublime ; the mules 
making up for lost time among the bent and tre- 
foil arc hidden by the edge of the hill ; the shrewd 
guide is with them, occupied probably in comput- 
ing how much he will charge you. Meantime you 
may forget your foolish purse, and think of the 
days that are gone. How many thousands once 
were busy here ! and what is become of their dwel- 
lings ? Here is indeed the Temple, standing un- 

o 4 


hurt as if by magic : but for the rest, nought save 
waste blocks strewing the vast area. Where are 
the happy homes, the busy mart, the sociable 
streets ? All is gone, but how did it disappear ? 
Did an earthquake level the " pauperum tabejmas 
rcgumquc turrcs " yet spare the temple ? I should 
rather incline to believe that some ruthless con- 
queror, such as Agathocles, in the hour of ven- 
geance, ploughed up the city but feared to touch 
what was consecrated. 

The Amphitheatre, Roman of course, must have 
been an elegant one, judging by what remains. It 
was of unusually small dimensions. The courses 
here are laid in a blue stone selected from the 
curling edge of the quarry. Report says that the 
imperial Nicolas meditates a trip from the palaces 
of Palermo to this mountain scene : I advise him 
to carry his bed with him to Calatafirai. What a 
man is this ! surely the eagle of his tribe. Even 
Madame Catalani's glowing description of his ap- 
pearance scarce prepared me to see such an ener- 
getic Colossus. L'Imperatrice seems to be mending 
in health here : but oh ! grief to the Palermites, 
they must not fire the guns, as she cannot bear 
the concussion. But to return to our villa. What 


singular associations cross one's path in life ! All 
my schoolboy days rushed back on me just now as 
clear as if present. We were taking a turn on the 
gravelled walk that runs round the shrubbery : a 
little yellow owl was tied by the leg to a hutch : 
sundry suspicious-looking twigs lay here and there 
athwart the hedge-row, and half a dozen linnets 
and sparrows stood chirping at him. Returning 
cJiez nous, a glance at our landlord explained the 
whole affair: he held in either hand a prisoner 
fluttering on a lime-twig; "due bocconi," said he, 
with a grim smile : the " civetta" had been playing the 
part of decoy-duck, and these were the first-fruits. 
In another minute, before we could grant them 
grace, he twisted both their necks, and declared we 
should see them at dinner. 




After a peep at Messina, here we are at the foot 
of Etna, in a town historically old, but actually 
new, looking up at a cone ten thousand feet above 
us white with snow. Nothing can well be more 
striking than the coast of Sicily, whether you 
sweep by it in a steamer, or take a " vettura " oc- 
casionally and post across such levels as have 
roads made on them. From Palermo to Messina 
we had the boat, and from its deck made acquain- 
tance with the Lipari Isles, Scitta and Charybdis, 
and Stromboli. The appearance of this latter gives 
a more simple impression of the power of volcanic 
agency than even the lofty furnace of Vesuvius : 
here is a rocky chimney rising like a lighthouse 
amid the waves, and in a state of constant ignition 
day and night for some thousand years. 

Charybdis has golden sands and a picturesque 
tower : there is still a considerable whirlpool off 
shore which the steamers avoid. Scilla's rocks 
would wreck any craft mad enough to brush 
against them ; but with ordinary care there can be 


little danger of coming into such contact, for the 
tide which carries you into the bay of Messina 
through the strait flows like a millstream. 

The road from Messina hither presented nothing 
worthy of remark, save the dry beds of water- 
courses, which in six weeks are to become torrents. 
Of these, albeit noways picturesque, one is con- 
strained to take note every half-hour, as the large 
pebbles almost unwheel you. The way the vehicle 
is packed, though sensible enough on other grounds, 
renders these bumps inevitable whenever the road 
is uneven : all the luggage is slung in a rope-net 
below the belly of the carriage, and of course 
clashes with every obstruction that occurs. And 
thus, three horses abreast, you get along, some 
five miles an hour. The sixty odd miles between 
Messina and this took a couple of days, as the 
same cattle must do all the work. 

We have been here a week, and I have ascended- 
Etna ; a matter very easy in summer, but some- 
what difficult in the snow. Real danger T should 
say there is none for any healthy person, if he or 
she will observe certain precautions. Professor 
Gemellaro, who lives at Nicolosi on the mountain, 
was good enough to put me on my guard just in 


time. We reached this spot, some 14 miles from 
hence and lying at the edge of the first lava- field, 
in the evening, and I at once made my arrange- 
ments for starting towards midnight with a guide 
to reach the summit. Calling on Gemellaro, he 
gave me two wrinkles : " Borrow a Sicilian Ca- 
pottc ; and before you set out He down and sleep, 
if it be only for a couple of hours, — as the tem- 
perature between this spot and the Casa degli 
Inglesi varies above forty degrees of Fahrenheit." 
Forewarned, forearmed: so to bed I went and 
dozed two hours, then dressed, pocketed a pair of 
long stockings to don over my boots and pantaloons, 
with an extra pair of gloves and a comforter, and 
finally got into a great rough Capotte which I 
deemed as impenetrable as if it were the shelter of 
a stout rooftrce and warm fireside. I little thought 
that within six hours the air of upper Etna would 
pierce through it like the blade of a sword, be- 
numbing my joints, chilling my marrow, and 
freezing my breath in icicles on whiskers and eye- 
brows. I started about eleven p. m. Two men 
accompanied me, one to scale the summit, the other 
to look after the horses, which must be left at the 
Casa degli Inglesi. We had moonlight for 2 or 3 


hours, after which Diana veiled herself, I rather 
think behind the mountain, but won't be positive. 
After passing 4 miles of lava, we entered the Bosco 
and wandered for about 5 miles more through 
winding paths and among broken banks where 
doddered oaks rising out of the fern recalled the 
scenery of Windsor Forest. In this "bosco" is 
a hut, where we halted a quarter of an hour to 
feed the cattle, and don our extra wraps. Shortly 
after this we emerged from everything hospitable 
and habitable upon a vast country of lava : now it 
would be a clamber for half an hour along the 
edge of a precipice, now a plain two miles across, 
whitened by lakes and grips of frozen snow; then 
another precipice, — and so on for nine miles. 
There was not much wind, but when a breath did 
come it was like a rebuke void of love, chill and 
disheartening. The Capotte has a band by which 
it buckles at the waist: I shall always like the 
sight of a buckle and band : I believe it saved me 
once or twice from dropping out of the saddle. 
There are few things more exhausting to the 
spirits than a long endurance of severe cold by 
night : the muscles and nerves become over- 
wrought, and their usually cheerful play turns to 


a dead pull : perhaps the brain is slightly affected, 
the heart certainly is, as your pulse plainly indi- 
cates. Then, the horses will stumble, and when 
they stumble often they get frightened and refuse 
to go on, and then you must dismount and lead 
your beast, though your fingers arc frozen and 
your head giddy. Amidst this diversion I hud 
two severe falls ; one of them, which was into a 
deep grip, the horse shared with me. I know 
when we reached the Casa degli Inglesi at past 
five in the morning, I thanked God heartily and 
audibly. Here we halted, unlocked the doors, lit 
a fire in the outer room, and gave the beasts a bag 
of fodder. The guides fell to eating : I was too 
sick to accompany them, but they did ample jus- 
tice to my cold fowl and bottle of wine as well as 
to their own viands. I never looked on such a 
scene as that which was presented from the thresh- 
old of this Casa. A vast " pianura " of black lava 
ribbed and spotted with snow, here a hillock per- 
haps 200 feet high, of the same stern material, 
there the dim crest and plumbline of a precipice; 
on the other side, looming through the sombre air 
like a barrier-limit of the world, the huge cone of 
Etna. Beyond this, absolute void. There was 


comfort in feeling that amid the wilderness I stood 
on the threshold of an English home ; for this rude 
tenement was reared by a party of English, and 
God knows how many lives it has saved. Still I 
longed for day to break and reveal something akin 
to the habitable earth if it were but a grey stone or 
a lichen. 

An hour and a quarter of severe struggle, with 
the aid of a stout staff each, brought myself and 
guide within a hundred yards of the topmost ridge. 
The loose ashes made this part of the business 
very wearisome. I observed that in ten steps we 
did not advance above half as many feet. All at 
once, in our last halt for breath, we saw the horizon 
flush from a dull pink to bright orange, and up 
came the sun. With it came rnys of golden light 
bringing warmth to our bodies, and form and 
colour to every object around us. We scrambled 
over the remaining bit, and gained the summit of 
the cone. Here ocular proof is obtained of the 
prodigious elevation of Etna, of which one has no 
adequate idea from below. Some six or seven 
thousand feet beneath us lay a fleecy field of clouds 
resting like pillows on the region of the Bosco, and 
spreading from thence in a vast semicircular area to 


the visible horizon, with perhaps a hundred and fifty 
miles of radius. When I first looked on this I sup- 
posed it to be the sea, and marvelling at its un- 
wonted appearance requested the guide to show me 
Catania : " Queste sono nuvole, e Catania non si 
puo vedcr " was the answer. Indeed it lay fully 
three thousand feet lower, and was at this time 
buried under the mist. As the sun advanced the 
enormous white mass parted in divers directions, 
and the sea showed itself, a gulph of indigo, with 
huge things careering on its surface like icebergs 
after a thaw : these were the clouds rent and piled 
up. " Adesso si vede il marc " said my friend : I 
smiled, for I saw he had discerned my previous un- 
belief of his assertion. In the course of twenty 
minutes the lava-fields on this side of the Bosco 
were visible. 

We now walked on the edge of the great crater 
with our backs to the sun. My attention was 
drawn from one phenomenon to another: I was 
marvelling how crystals of ice could be formed 
amidst hot scoria* and smoking sulphur, when the 
guide called me to look at a " bella cosa;" I raised 
my eyes and beheld the shadow of the cone pro- 
jected in air on the morning moisture in the di- 


rection of Lipari. It seemed exactly another cone, 
heaviest towards the head, which was of a violet 
colour, and shivered into shadowy streaks on the 
flanks. Behind it was a sky brightening every 
moment with the sun's ray, and across this a few 
dark horizontal lines broke from the penumbra. 
This thing is spectral in its appearance, and more 
than any other object aloft, impresses one with a 
sense of the singular and isolated position of Etna's 
summit. » 

The main crater is about five hundred feet deep 
at this time ; so say the guides, but I think this 
must be measured down the slope of the funnel. I 
could not, however, sec to the bottom, owing to 
volleys of sulphureous smoke whirling up ever and 
anon, accompanied by a rumbling noise and occa- 
sionally by a slight vibration in the ground under- 
foot. Here I found amidst warm ashes, on the 
slope of the crater within, heavy crystals of ice set 
all at one angle and curved like sharks' teeth. I 
picked up one bit as big as a walnut and asked the 
guide if he could account for its presence. Far be 
it from him to give a " rationale " of any thing of 
the sort: it would derogate from the dignity of 


Etna. It reminded me of a chemical experiment 
played off by a French savant at one of the late 
" Scienziati " meetings. He made water freeze in a 
red-hot cup. The silver or platina being brought 
to a red heat, a few drops of water are thrown in r 
which do not evaporate but jump about. Sul- 
phuric acid is now poured in, which in the act of 
boiling produces so intense a cold by the disengage- 
ment of its latent heat, that the drop of water at 
once turns to* ice. I opine the chemical process here 
to be the same, only on nature's grand scale. The 
morning mists supply the moisture, and within 
the crater there is no lack of sulphureous mixture 
boiling as in a retort : hence, as hot fumes ascend, 
the crystals of ice are precipitated. If any one re- 
ject this solution of mine let them find a better, 
remembering that they arc to account for pieces of 
ice forming on a bed of warm ashes. This prin- 
ciple of " disengagement of latent heat " may also 
help to account for the severity of the cold felt on 
Etna, which is far greater than is due to its eleva- 
tion. I believe the summit of an Alp at the same 
level is not so cold though in a more northerly 
latitude. A Russian, who ascended the mountain 
a fortnight before I did, was perfectly amazed : 


he said he never felt, even in Petersburgh, such 
peculiar sensations of cold. 

There lay another smaller crater not far off with 
a caldron of flames at its bottom, but the sides of 
this cannot be descended with safety ; we paced a 
few yards down the interior of the big one, but I 
was never fond of breathing sulphur matches, so 
did not go far. 

On our return over the lavas I stopped to ex- 
amine " Empedocles* Tower," as the country people 
call it, but now held to have been one of the early 
altars to Ceres : this latter guess is ingenious, but 
may give place to a better. The remarkable fact 
about it is, that it presents a fine specimen of brick- 
work not found elsewhere assignable to such a date 
in the Etnean country. As to Empedocles or any 
one else, permanently inhabiting this elevated 
region, I hold it to be a fable ; if he really did so 
for a week in December, it would fully account 
for his jumping into the crater to warm himself. 

Sicilians quote the view of the Val di Bue from 
the edge of Etna's north-eastern cliff, as the finest 
they have ; it is certainly the wildest. Your eye 
travels down to a vast plain lying far below ; from 

p 2 


its level rises air extinct volcano, whose fields of 
lava, richly tinted, are spread round its base; 
mountains form a ring fence, themselves of con- 
siderable stature, but shrinking into mediocrity by 
the side of Etna. On reaching Catania, I sketched 
this scene and the spectre of the mountain from 

The descent was as rapid as the ascent had been 
long and toilsome. I thought the Bosco beautiful; 
the trees are of the species of oak called " elce," 
growing in a ferruginous soil which abounds with 
some curious specimens of semi-petrified earth, pro- 
bably due to the action of saline springs. Emerging 
from this, I encountered my dear partner on horse- 
back ; she had braved the morning dews, and was 
bringing a basket with provisions for breakfast, 
and a ready ear for my mountain tale. Fox fol- 
lowed among the attendants, and seemed vastly 
surprised that he had nothing but lava and ashes 
to run upon. T retain two mementos of this ex- 
pedition, a beautiful piece of coloured scoria from 
the crater's edge, and the oak stick cut from one of 
the " elci," with which I climbed up the cone. 

This Catania, or holt Etvol, lying at the foot of 


the mountain, derives its chief interest at this day 
from its position ; the era of its glory, and it is to 
be hoped also that of its calamity, has gone by, 
and it is now a second rate town, inferior to Pa- 
lermo in beauty and to Messina in wealth, but still 
attracting many visiters to its singular neighbour^ 
hood. Every thing tells of Etna, breathes of Etna ; 
the exquisite honey at your breakfast-table is from 
the slopes of Etna ; Etna's snow ices the fruits and 
confectionery; Etna's lavas, cut into polished 
tablets and boxes, adorn the shop- windows ; if you 
ask about the weather, Etna's cone is the only au- 
thority, and according to its actual appearance, hot 
or cold, wind or calm, fair or foul is predicted. 
Above all, if you have legs and your health, you 
make a push to climb to the loftiest crater in 
Europe. The Saracens called him " Mongibello," 
which means "mountain of mountains," Etna 
resting on a vast region of hills as his base. 

Catania is almost entirely new, having been 
rebuilt on the old foundations after the earthquake 
of 1693, which slew sixteen thousand persons here, 
and in all Sicily, I believe, a hundred thousand. 
The shock overthrew the old town, leaving only up 

r 3 


to the first floor in the Benedettini monastery, and a 
few other buildings. Indeed from the first it has 
known its full share of troubles. In A. d. 535, 
Belisarius took it ; in 550, Totila; in 1542, earth- 
quakes shook it dreadfully; from 1575 to 1578, 
it was ravaged by pestilence; from 1581 to 1591 a 
famine raged. In 1624 the pestilence came again ; 
in 1647, again ; in 1669, Etna buried every thing 
westward, and great part of the town itself, the 
wave of lava, thirty feet high, halting suddenly 
within ten yards of the Benedettini. In 1693 was 
the awful earthquake. 

There is great lack of a good history of the city, 
which is the more surprising as many authenticated 
traditions, known to man, woman, and child, exist. 
The Duca di Carcace, the first noble here, has 
drawn up an elegant little volume, but it scarce 
amounts to more than a guide to museums and 
villas. Some one should commence a work on all 
the ancient capitals of Sicily ; no country ever had 
so many or so mighty, save perhaps Etruria ; and 
among these Catania would furnish an interesting 
volume ; it is more ancient than either Palermo or 
Messina, a colony from Chalcis having founded it 


in 758 B.C., Nasso and Leontium being prior only 
by a few years. It was christianised as early as 
a.d. 44; and its inhabitants have from the first 
borne such a warlike character that they never 
erected fortifications to defend themselves, until an 
attempt of the Turks to sack the town had nearly 
succeeded, in the middle of the sixteenth century. 

If such a work as the above were undertaken, it 
would derive much interest from questions of chro- 
nology and language to which it would give rise. 
The latter has always been shifting and changing ; 
at this day it is a medley. The former is involved 
in admitted confusion, from which it can only be 
extricated by bringing to bear on the disputed 
points the collateral light of general history. 
Another very interesting branch would be the 
geography of the island, or, rather, the decision of 
the different districts in which distinct colonies 
settled down, and a note of their emigrations from 
time to time. If I were living here for five years 
I would undertake it, and get Professor Agatino 
Longo, of this town, to help me ; who is a very 
well-informed and agreeable man, though devoured 
with philosophical hobbies. 

p 4 












80 ante Trojam 

1 Sicilian. 
J Phoenician. 




765 b.c. 




Grecian mixed. 





Latin mixed. 







Beginning of 12th 
century - 

!■ Norman. 

Castilians, &c. 

14th century. 

This is a rough sketch of what would be needed 
as a running comment to accompany the body 
of the work. There is one antique here, the 
elephant of basalt, in the Piazza ; this is probably 
due to the city's amity with Pyrrhus, 300 b. c. ; it 
was then they lost their solar quadrant, which 
emigrated to Rome, as part of the spoil seized by 
Messala. Catania stands, despite its wars and its 
earthquakes; but where are Leontium, Agri- 
gentum, Tauromenium, Syracuse, and others? all 
once mighty cities, and how little do we know of 
their fall ! 


There are several modern " lions" here. The 
Biscari museum is as well arranged as any I have 
seen, though necessarily limited, being a collection 
made by one family, almost by one individual, the 
late prince; here arc some of the most beautiful 
petrifactions in the world. The Duomo is a hand- 
some building, and contains St. Agata's head in a 
silver case, but it cannot be shown till her " festa" 
in February arrives. She is the patron-saint, and 
in the " Maria" nunnery is a painting representing 
the torture inflicted on the youthful martyr ; it is 
a fact that the executioners cut off her breasts ! 
Cceur de Lion called at this port on his way to 
Palestine, and presented a crown of gold at her 
shrine : this and a collar with inestimable jewels 
are kept locked and guarded under seven fire- 
proof doors. 

The noblest church, however, here, or in all 
Sicily, is the Monastery of tlie Benedettini, which is 
on a free foundation, even the sovereign having no 
power to dilapidate its revenues. This princely 
society keeps the poor of Catania from perishing by 
famine : a sum of several dollars is disbursed every 
morning in necessaries to relieve the most pressing 
cases. Sovereigns have been guests here, and the 


building comprises a palace, a museum, and a 
" hanging garden," constructed on the terrace 
afforded by the last wave of lava which took this 
direction in 1669. Here, from a window looking 
out into the court, we gazed on the scene and fact 
of the " miracolo." A space of some ten yards 
broad, by perhaps thirty in length, is flanked on 
the left by the convent-wall, on the right by the 
parallel line of lava-rock, now solid, and supporting 
shrubs and trees, but then liquid enough to flow. 
It here stopped short of the church, which its 
further progress for a few seconds must have 
thrown down. The great earthquake, twenty-four 
years later, shook down all the upper stories, but 
left the basement level up to the first floor standing 
and facing the lava as before. Thus it has escaped 
twice, from eruption and from earthquake-shock. 
The Catanians love to dwell on this miraculous 
interposition in favour of their church, and who 
can blame them ? 

The choir has one of the finest organs in the 
world; we heard a voluntary on it. This town 
was Bellini's birthplace; the people are passion- 
ately fond of music. There is one good picture 
here, author unknown, — the " Spasimo." 


The Catanians have many troubles, but they 
have also many advantages natural or acquired. I 
think on the whole they are happy people. Their 
corn, which erst fed Rome, is almost indigenous, 
for the date of its introduction into the island 
cannot be traced. Their vines, growing low as 
on the Rhine, yield a far more generous grape 
than that which ripens on the straggling festoons 
of Italy : their fish are abundant and delicious ; no 
seas in the world can show the like. Cefalo, spina, 
merluzzoj nasella, alice^ are superior to any sorts I 
ever ate any where. Then, if they wish to build, 
they need not bake bricks or quarry stone ; here is 
the ready lava, durable, and of all colours ; and 
marbles, agates, and alabasters, to face it with, for 
those who can afford expense. To this day they 
dig up rare coins and odd antiques, and their river 
rolls down amber of three different hues, a per- 
quisite for the peasant and fisherman. They are 
lively and faithful craftsmen, as the tcrra-cotta 
groups witness. Their silk fabbrica well nigh 
mates that of France, and the material is h si bon 
marchi, that every Catanian woman goes to mass 
in a long mantilla of good black silk, enveloping 
her from the head to the ancles. Finally, Mongi- 


bello, their only terror, is at the same time their 
pride and delight : when he is quiet, they rejoice in 
his beauty; when an eruption threatens, they 
humble themselves before the Almighty, and con- 
fess their sins as a people. London, Paris, Rome, 
seats of pride and luxury, have ye any thing 
better? or is the unseen mine beneath your palaces 
and markets, ready to be sprung when least ex- 
pected, less dangerous than the artillery and lava- 
floods of Etna ? 

One effect of visiting a country like this is to 
force one's attention to the subject of volcanic lavas. 
The amount of those in existence in the Two Sici- 
lies, if computed geometrically, is truly prodigious, 
and then arises the puzzling problem of " what is 
the source, the actual generation of the lava ? " 

As to its amount, the measure of the Etnean fields 
has never been taken ; it probably comprises one 
third of this island. But Vesuvius, a mere baby in 
comparison, has vomited enormous masses whose 
dimensions have in part been tested. While we 
were in Naples they were boring an Artesian well 
in the vicinity of the palace. The shaft had been 
sunk 450 feet, and they were not yet through the 
volcanic strata. 


Again, Ischia is simply a volcano : the entire re- 
gion of the Solfaterra, Phlegraoan fields, &c, is an 
old volcanic district. Some persons deem that the 
whole kingdom of Naples has come out of the 
bowels of volcanoes ; it is very possible : if the eye 
may decide, then I should say every thing between 
Vesuvius and Cuma, including the Bay of Naples, 
was once one great crater ; it certainly retains that 
form, only, as the old lavas return to a consistence 
of clay, one walks over them without knowing it. 

The nature of the lava-rock prior to its volcani- 
sation is not known : it would seem, however, to be 
homogeneous, liquefying in all parts of the world 
at much the same temperature, and everywhere re- 
taining its heat for a length of time which is diffi- 
cult to account for. The scoriae, ashes, and vitrified 
matter shot forth in gaseous explosions have a to- 
tally distinct character and are never liquefied. 
Probably the lava has a base of clay with lime 
and alum combined. Iron from time to time 
mingles with this, and hence on the crater's edge 
you will always find it in some form or another. 
Round that of Etna small shining prisms like 
" tourmalines " arc picked up : they go by the 
name of "ferro specolare " from their reflecting the 


light, and they are not fusible in fire. Gemellaro 
gave me a paper of them when I was with him. 
The eruptions are unquestionably due to a super- 
abundance of moisture : when the water is decom- 
posed explosive gases result. Hence, earthquake- 
shocks generally coincide with the throes of the 
mountain. A very wet season is always followed 
by one dangerous to those who dwell near a volcano : 
it has been noted also that in the first stages of an 
eruption streams of salt water are sometimes 
vomited. Volcanoes, moreover, throughout the 
known world, stand in the vicinity of seas, as Coto- 
paxi, Hecla, Etna, Vesuvius, &c. Stromboli is in 
the sea. Some one has observed that where a sea 
has retired, or the inland lake dried up, the volcano 
has become extinct. Now all this dangerous 
activity of the water would alone lead one to think 
of clay as the base ; for that substance is imper- 
vious to water, and when the chambers within the 
mountain's jaws are heated they act as boilers and 
generate steam. There is another and distinct 
reason for assuming a base of clay, and that is the 
apparent fact that old lavas return to the state of 
clay, as is seen in the Solfaterra. Having said this 
it is fair to mention one objection to clay being 


supposed the prevailing ingredient, which is this : 
clay is very cold, but the lava torrents retain their 
heat sensibly for a number of years. The current 
of 1669, I am assured, was warm in parts for ten 
years afterwards : and that of 1843 is hot now, at 
the end of two winters, on the Bronte side. of the 
mountain. This difficulty is very great : but may 
be met by the fact that metal, which radiates very 
slowly, is present in the formation. I think, how- 
ever, there is another consideration which may 
solve the problem. 

The lava-rock would appear to possess the pro- 
perty of internal combustion, as a piece of phos- 
phorus docs. Whoever has read that very interest- 
ing book the " Etudes sur la Nature," will remember 
a chapter there on origins and species, by B. St. 
Pierre, in which he remarks, contrk the geologists, 
that Etna's forges must have been formed before 
an eruption could take place. I quote from me- 
mory and have no copy of the work within reach : 
but his argument is unanswerable, and will bear as 
a corollary [note (/)] that there must have been 
fuel in the forge from the first. In brief, the fusion 
results from fire kindling within the rock itself, 
when the viscous nature of the substance and its 


aversion to assuming a gaseous form, eause the 
fluid stream of stony matter. A chemist would 
say there is a reaction of the component elements 
of the rock, as in the case of fermentation. 

Switzerland has glaciers, but no volcanoes ; why? 
because it is inland. Its fresh- water lakes would 
not feed a volcano. The " fall of the Rossbcrg," 
however, was accompanied by an explosion of gas, 
a shower of heavy missiles, and an exuding of vast 
masses of clay ; which had every volcanic character 
save the phosphoric and metallic one of melted 
matter flowing as from a forge. 

While speaking on the subject of the lava, I may 
note here what has been found to be the chief danger 
attendant on approaching a stream of it in motion. 
This danger lies in any covered tank or reservoir of 
water happening to be near. In one of the latest 
eruptions of Mount Etna a number of persons had 
followed the course of the lava for some miles, 
occasionally stirring it with sticks, and even run- 
ning across the heated current. At a certain 
point, the stream came in contact with a small 
reservoir ; an explosion of steam followed instan- 
taneously, and about a score of persons who were 
standing near lost their lives ; others were scalded. 


The same thing occurred not very long ago on 

Among the specimens of lava which I collected 
while in Catania, I have one exhibiting a trans- 
parent agate-like substance, striped as arc the 
Scotch pebbles: this was without doubt formed 
by the heated lava thus coming in contact 
with water. 

While on this subject, I mention a fact unwelcome 
to divers modern geologists. The origin of basalt 
is probably aqueous ; a variety which is evidently 
stalagmitic may now be seen in a cliff near 
Aci-Trezza on this coast. The Cyclopean Isles 
hard by are of this material. We have made our 
trip there, but a rough sea forbad our landing on 
the sheer rock. In the attempt we were nearer 
being drowned than I ever saw a boat's crew in my 
life. " Non nobis, Domine ! " said I, and say still. 
The " temporale " came like lightning, the waves 
rose like a castle wall, our boatmen were panic- 
struck, and our fat host, Abbate, very near upset 
us all. My servant, a Florentine, turned as pale 
as if he had seen the Angel of Death. 



Syracuse, January, 1846. 

We paid a visit to Messina a week ago, where 
we had the pleasure of being wind-bound on Christ- 
mas day. As the breeze still continued adverse for 
Naples, and a steamer here on such occasions is 
only another word for your coffin, we have run 
down the coast thus far to get a peep at scenes 
renowned in the annals of Athens and consular 

Messina has not many lions, but it seemed a 
comfortable sort of place to live in. From the 
brow of a mountain behind the town there is a 
noble view of the two seas, Tyrrhene and Ionian. 
On the quay stands one fine piece of sculpture, a 
fountain with sirens. There are three or four 
splendid convents : in that of " Monte Alto " I found 
an entire wall covered over with votive offerings in 
descriptive pictures, which is the old Roman cus- 
tom of Horace's day surviving to our century : — 

" Me tabula sacer 
Votiva paries indicat uvida 
Suspendisse potenti 
Vestimenta maris Deo." 


Substitute " Marias " for the two last words, and 
nothing else is different. 

In merry England on Christmas day people eat 
roast beef and plum pudding, turkeys and mince 
pies : you may eat most of these here also ; but 
the special dish in honour of the " Nativita " is 
" capitoni" enormous eels stewed in a rich sauce. 
Every soul ate capitoni in Messina. Indeed there 
was an unusual supply; for a shipload of them 
intended for the Naples market could not leave 
port in time owing to the gale : and thus the spe- 
culator, a sea-captain, was fain to get rid of them 
in Messina at half price. Now I can only say they 
arc very good ; but wc took the precaution of 
having another string to our bow in shape of a re- 
spectable roast joint of beef and a real good English- 
looking plum pudding. After that, it is very hard 
if we are left for the year of grace " eighteen forty- 
six " without Victoria's bonny face in our purse. 

January, 1846. 

Syracuse of all the spots I have ever seen affects 
me most strongly with the idea of desolation. 
Here are some fifty square miles, once peopled 
by a million and a half of souls, as bare and lone 

u 2 



as the top of Ben Cruachan. Of the five divisions 
which made up the ancient city one only, OrA/M, 
lying at the extreme edge on the sea-coast, 
survives. But Epipolis, which had the citadel, 

and overlooked all the rest, is now a vast plain 
strewed with ruins level with the knee : its towers, 
which erst kissed the blue sky, now kiss the sod. 
Tica (Tu^ij), where Fortune's temple stood, has 
shared the fortunes of Nineveh, and is in ruins: 
Acradina, ruins ; Neapolis, ruins : and such ruins ! 
myriads of blocks, but each one laid low : columns, 
but all broken: banks and terraces of masonry 
presenting the appearance of a landslip: baths 
fallen in, arches crushed, the main lines of roads 
scarcely to be traced — nought remains but the ex- 
cavations of two theatres, the " Latomie" or quar- 
ries, subterranean grottoes, a catacomb, and two 
headless columns of the temple of Olympian Jove. 


The natural features of the country round are 
too strongly pronounced for the flight of time to 
affect thera materially. Towards Etna, which is 
a majestic object from hence, the ground swells 
into long sweeping ridges. Epipolis crowns a sort 
of cliff, from which you look down on the penin- 
sula of Thapsos on the left, and on the right 
have a bird's-eye view of Plemmirium and of the 
port, which is double. Here we threaded a range 
of subterranean galleries from which of old issued, 
as if by magic, the Syracusan horse and foot on the 
flank of the Athenians. These ambushes lie under- 
neath the city's foundations, and I have met with no 
remains which give a bolder idea of the conceptions 
and labours of the men of other days. Labdalo'a 
position is marked by one of the few large masses 
extant : here Nicias' camp was pitched, and here 
he had full leisure to reflect on the folly of the 
whole expedition. The Port has a circumference 
of seven miles ; 500 sail of the line might lie as snug 
within its arms as a coble in a boathouse : Nelson 
harboured here for a week with fourteen seventy- 
fours, having 10,000 men on board, a matter which 
the Sicilians have not forgotten. Bronte, on the 
side of Etna, is not better known by the tremendous 

Q 3 


lava-torrents which it has vomited than by the 
lion-hearted commander to whom it gave a duke's 
title. The entrance to this port was defended 
anciently by a bridge of boats connected with 
strong chain work; an impassable barrier when 
such was needed. At present Ortigia is entered 
on the land side by five gates and four drawbridges. 
" In hoc portu Atheniensium nobilitatis, imperii, 
gloriae naufragium factum existimatur," — so says 
Tully: but what chance could Athens, while at 
variance with Sparta, have had against such a city 
as Syracuse ? Sallust observes, shrewdly enough, 
" Atheniensium res gestae, sicuti ego cxistimo, satis 
. amplaB magnificaBque fuSre; verum aliquanto mi- 
nores tamen qu&m farad feruntur:" and then he 
gives the reason. 

At the foot of Epipolis are some fields of 
scoriae and old lavas from Etna, but the folks 
here do not care much about Mongibello. An 
old fisherman was asked by a professor what 
account he could give of that " rara avis in terris," 
the basaltic cluster of isles called " Ciclopi." He 
of the skiff and nets cut this Gordian knot readily 
enough. " Furono fatti da Domm* Iddio "... a 
wiselike answer, not unworthy of certain folks' 
consideration now-a-days. 


Arethusa's Fountain is now a scanty rill drizzling 
alongside of a stone wall. When we looked on 
it I really forgot the " Sicelides Musae," and 
thought of the banks o* Clyde; for two or three 
brawny wenches, stripped to the knee, were sous- 
ing, rinsing, and stra lighting the linen in the 
waters of the coy nymph. The Anapo and Ciana, 
two streams which uniting a little above the har- 
bour mingle their fresh waves with its salt, arc 
better worth a visit. The Ciana is beautiful: 
fringed with colossal waterflags, and its bosom 
reflecting the floating thickets of the " papyrus." 
This latter is identical with the plant of the 
Nile. When growing it has a graceful ap- 
pearance, the triangular green rush and golden 
mop-like head swaying and nodding in every 
gust. Here are several small islands of it 
anchored in the stream : it sometimes stands 
twenty feet high. The process of making the 
paper is a simple one, but can only take place on 
the spot, as the stalk must be slit and pressed the 
same day it is rooted up or it will lose its adhesive 
property; these strips laid one over another, 
gridiron fashion, are pressed in a napkin — et voila 
tout. A lad here makes it very tidily. We rowed 

Q 4 


six miles up the Ciana to its source, a limpid 
l>ool some forty feet deep with the springs welling 
up in its bottom. The New River head, near Ware 
in Hertfordshire, is not unlike it ; only here the 
water is so translucent that you may sec shoals of 
the " cefalo " swimming about full fathom five. 
I regretted on this jaunt that I had not a fowling- 
piece with me; summer-snipe, whole snipe, moor- 
hen, dabchick, and yellow wagtail flirted around 
the boat : I even put up some wild-duck ; and an 
enormous buzzard rose leisurely from the flag- 
stubble, where he had no doubt been doing his best 
to flout the game-laws. 

The " Latomie," in the Tica district, were ori- 
ginally the Syracusan quarries, from which they 
cut many thousand cubic feet of stone, to rear 
their city walls and temples. 

After the defeat of the Athenian army, these 
were used as prisons to confine the unhappy cap- 
tives, and proved the condemned cells of such as 
could not recite Euripides. Some of them arc now 
converted into rope-walks, others, appertaining to 
the convents, are dressed as gardens, and present a 
singular scene of verdure. The " Silva," of the 
Capuccini is the most beautiful ; here the tops of 


the pines and orange trees barely reach half way 
up the cliff which their convent crowns- The 
crypt here has relics of undoubted authenticity, 
the natural mummies of some twenty of the holy 
fathers of other days ; each of these lifeless forms 
is fastened to the wall by a belt round the waist ; 
some have collapsed and fallen, presenting the 
appearance of a martyr at the stake. I was vexed 
to find such lack of reverence and true discernment. 
What parent or brother could endure to meet 
the form and features he had known and loved 
thus exposed as curiosities in a musty vault ? If I 
were Sua Maesta, I would insist with the superior 
on their interment. Our guide here was a Capu- 
cin of four-and -twenty, who, for zeal and kindness 
with simplicity of manners, might have sat for the 
portrait of Oristoforo in the " Promessi Sposi." 
San Giovanni had the honour of having S. Marziale 
for its bishop, the first Christian prelate who filled 
a chair in Sicily. In the primitive church below 
wo saw the identical cross of masonry set by this 
bishop, when he consecrated the building; and a 
rare old eagle in stone, meant for that of St. John, 
with the first three verses of his gospel below. 
The mixed architecture here resembles the cross- 


ings and overlappings of some of the geological 
strata. You can see huge Grecian columns 
peeping out from under a mask of Roman cement 
and brickwork. The catacombs are hewn in the 
tufo, and reach, it is said, to Catania. 

St. Lucia's church is full of interest. Hero is 
the picture by Caravaggio, of her interment, with 
the aged mother kneeling beside the corpse: his 
Strong lights and shadows suit the subject well. 
This Lucia was a poor girl, but of great personal 
attractions : there is a story extant of her refusing 
to hearken to the suit of one who was attached to 
her, lest she should miss the cross of Christ. Her 
day is now the great " festa " of this city, whose 
principal quarter bears her name as patroness; 
including the fortress where the king's cannon 
thunder from the ramparts. It is impossible not 
to honour Roman Catholic Christians for the 
honour which they invariably pay to the memories 
of those whom they hold to have been foremost in 
the good fight. 

Dionysius's Ear is the finest of all the caverns ; 
whose u ear," however, it never was, but probably 
an echo-vault for a theatre, or odeon above. It 
is true, that in form it resembles an ear, more, 

.mm mm m. i n,i i 



however, the asinine than the human, as some 
one pithily observed. The ground plan within 
has the figure of an S. Its dimensions are vast, 
some 200 feet long, by fully 100 in height; yet 
the old floor lies lower still, but is paved over, 
on account of the springs of water which flood 
the level. 

They have a museum in the town: a mixed, 
though small collection. It has one gem, the 
Venus ; a lady who unluckily lacks the head and 
half an arm, but they have acted wisely in not 
attempting restorations. This is one of the best 
statues that have yet been dug up anywhere ; the 
drapery, which is beautifully arranged, is a very 
great advantage. In some respects I prefer this 
to the Florence beauty. 

The Esculapius in the same room is a poor thing 
and heavy. Less ancient probably than the Ve- 
nus, but as much mutilated, is Archimedes' tomb, 
towards Acradina — if indeed his it be. The 
Grecian cut front in the face of the rock has a 
striking appearance ; but this pretty pediment and 
a bit of a pillar or two raise your expectations only 
to disappoint them. Within all is empty, nor has 
any one niche or chest furnished an inscription to 


warrant the assertion of Sicilian antiquaries. Still, 
like the Spada Pompey, if it can't be proved neither 
can it be disproved; and one naturally wishes to 
believe it. I have amused myself with sketching 
an outline of what may have been his last resting- 
place in the city which gave him birth, and which 
his genius all but saved. One thing is in favour 
of the sentence which assigns it as his. It is the 
only sepulchre visible in these parts : and to bury 
within the city walls was contrary to all law and 
custom, a rule only departed from in the case of 
illustrious citizens and patriots. 

The Syracusan features are handsome and " sta- 
tuesque : " all they lack here is, first, the old city ; 
secondly, a carpet on their floor in December and 

In the best inn of the town we shiver with cold : 
Oh ! for Kidderminster ! 

> I am vexed that we cannot make out a trip to 
Girgenti) once mighty Agrigentum; but the coast 
road is just now sloppy and the weather tempes- 

' Lentini, old Leontium, is now a -wilderness, the 
resort of huge tribes of water- fowl of every wing, 
who resort to the marshy lake. I have no speci- . 


men of its birds, but a very fine one of its ribbed 

The site of Taormina, ancient " Tauroinenium," 
is indescribably noble ; and its theatre must have 
been the greatest thing in the island. You are at 
a loss whether to admire most the vast masses of 
brickwork, the specimens of alabaster and agate 
facings, or the evident remains of exquisite co- 
lumns in Parian marble at its entrance. We 
walked round the enormous Attic, and I wavered 
for a moment in my vowed preference of the Coli- 
seum above all other structures in hoc genere. 
The prospect is beautiful beyond description : 
thirty miles of coast run along like the curling 
edge of a shell in bays and inlets; rich slopes 
descend from Mongibello's base to the shore j 
and ten thousand feet above all, that proud cone 
rises like a gigantic wave from amid a sea of 
purple clouds. We had a climb of two hours 
from Giardini, and reached the Theatre's Cliff in 
time for a glowing sunset. 

At Giardini there is a tidy inn, and a shrewd, 
bustling, inquisitive, benevolent old body of a 

We did not quit Syracuse without experiencing 


one sore disappointment. Those who know by 
experience the pleasure of meeting with a country- 
man or countrywoman while roaming in distant 
lands, with the delight of comparing notes and of 
exchanging a greeting in one's mother-tongue, will 
feel for us when they peruse the following. 

In the hotel where we were lodged, the floor 
above was tenanted by a married couple, who had 
resided there for several weeks. Our own stay 
proved a brief one, and during the course of it wc 
never met with these dear people : they had pro- 
bably long since explored all the spots in the neigh- 
bourhood which kept us so busy sight-seeing. 
However this be, somehow we never met without- 
doors, and generally, on coming home at the close 
of the day, we were too glad to swallow a dish of 
tea and go to an early bed. Only, we heard that 
the lady had long been and was still sedulously en- 
gaged in gathering all the specimens she could 
find of a small blue shell, which strews the sands 
of the Anapo and harbour: also we were aware, 
as was my terrier " Fox," of the presence of two 
little dogs in the apartment above, one of which 
was said to be a perfect beauty. The day dawned 
at length whose afternoon was to see us re-embark 


on board a steamer for Messina. What was our 
joy to learn that the family overhead were depart- 
ing by the same boat! Now should I be able 
to indulge the feast of reason and flow of soul. 
What questions I would ask my new-found ac- 
quaintance, how we would box the compass of 
geological and antiquarian science — specially on 
the subject of the lavas ! — there I thought I should 
shine. Then, the lady — a thousand pardons for 
not naming her first — how delightful, how cheer- 
ing, how chatty it would be on board that horrid 
boat! The dogs too! Fox, I am certain, knew 
what was in question; for he knows everything, 
and understands moreover at this time three lan- 
guages beside his own Gaelic. The hour drew on ; 
we had despatched a hasty dinner — our bags 
were packed, our bills settled, the porter was sum- 
moned ; we had heard too from time to time en- 
couraging sounds above of packing, pushing, 
thumping refractory luggage. Their very door 
on the stair was ajar, and I could note the pat- 
tering of lap-dogs' feet. The lagging moments 
passed at length, the moment of departure came. 
We crossed our threshold, Fox whined, and I 
instinctively raised my head and gave a glance up 


stairs: my eyes met the landlord's face; it wore 
a dispiriting, negative smile — " Questa famiglia 
non parte ancora," said he: "la signora non ha 
abbastanza di quelle piccole conchiglie; bisogna n' 
avere piii ! " 

Next to the lava-labours of Etna, nothing has 
struck me more in this beautiful island than the 
poetical turn of the people. Theocritus was the 
father of Idylls; and Virgil is always appealing 
to the " Sicelides Musae." I suspect the experience 
detailed in his Gcorgics, his most perfect work, 
was mainly drawn from hence. The words " Ca- 
labri rapuSre " in the epitaph attributed to him for 
Jhis own tomb, whether they were really his or no, 
prove, by inference, that he was close opposite this 
coast at the most observant period of life ; and no 
doubt he crossed over. Dante allows that the 
first Italian effusions in playful satire were termed 
" Siciliani." Even Petrarch savours of Trinacria. 
The speech of the inhabitants is to this day rather 
poetical than prosaic, abounding in lively images 
and picturesque modes of expression. The stu- 
died cringing so common in Naples is rare here : 
during a stay of six weeks in the island, I have 
only twice heard the title " Cellcnzn," which is 


everlastingly ringing in your ears in the metropolis. 
Their similitudes are endless, and sometimes very 
striking. In Florence you will hear " Bello come 
il campanile : " but here, if a lady is fair, she is 
" una candela di cera ; " if too languid, " ha un 
viso come un pesce bollito:" gentlemen who sit 
sluggishly on their mules instead of springing off 
to aid the weaker sex up the hill are designated as 
" pezzi di lava." If a little girl has anything re- 
markable about her, " E molto simpatica, una cosa 
particolare." " Buscar qualche cosa," I am sorry 
to say, has here, as in Ischia, the double meaning, 
either to earn a carline or steal it, as the case may 
be. Their humour is never richer than when 
shown in describing their own peculiarities of 

Two current Sicilian anecdotes may give some 
idea of the national obstinacy, a trait in which 
they certainly are not surpassed by any people — 
not even by the immovable Swiss. One of these 
relates that a Sicilian on his way from Catania to 
Messina, is met by a friend, who asks him where 
he is going ; the reply is, " Ho da essere a 
Messina ;" — " I must be at Messina." The other 
observes, " You should say, * Se Dio vuole :'" but 



this only draws forth the vehement assertion, " Se 
Dio vuolc, o non vuole, ho da esscre a Messina," 
Hereupon, to punish his impiety, he is changed into 
a frog. On recovering, after a year's penance, his 
pristine form, he meets a man on the same spot, 
who puts the same question, and gets the same 
answer, with the old offence repeated. Again he 
becomes a frog; but though he has twice done 
penance as a croaking reptile, he hardily sins 
again, word for word the same, and now, being 
incurable, is turned into a marsh by the roadside, 
where so many are croaking that the sin is 
evidently national. 

Another story introduces a Sicilian married 
woman, whose husband coming home from his 
work, finds the house turned topsy-turvy, and 
half the furniture destroyed; windows broken, 
curtains torn, tables upset, the very bars of the 
door twisted by main force. On requesting 
an explanation, he is told by his wife — " Maritu 
miu, forfici foru !" which means, u Husband mine, 
'twas the scissors did it ! " and she holds up her 
working scissors. Finding he can get no better 
answer, I am sorry to say he so far forgets himself 
as to carry his better half into the garden, and 


there attaching the bucket-rope to her neck lie lets 
her down into the well. After a souse up to the 
chin, he repeats his enquiry as to how the mischief 
was done, but always gets the same answer — " For- 
fici foru!" lie now gradually lowers her deeper 
and deeper, putting the interrogatory from time to 
time, but with no better success. At length she is 
fairly plunged over head and ears ; but while thus 
immersed, and speech impossible, the unyielding 
lady stretches out one arm, and holding the hand 
above water, moves the middle and forefinger so as 
to represent the action of scissors opening and 
shutting. At sight of this the husband gives in, 
draws up his wife, and takes her tenderly home, 
vowing that he will seek no better answer than the 
only one he seems likely to get, — " Maritu miu, 
forfici foru ! " 

These stories are genuine sketches of Sicilian 
pertinacity. The " forfici foru" is now a pro- 
verbial phrase, equivalent as a reply to ours, of 
" Find out, and then you'll know." 

Looking at the faded capitals of Sicily, one feels 
a deepening conviction that the sway of ancient 
Rome blighted every thing that sat under its 
shadow. These cities began with Phoenician en- 

B 2 


tcrprise, and were perfected by the arts and 
fostering amity of Greece ; but from the day when 
Rome gained the ascendant, they never knew real 
prosperity. In her palmy state they did not share 
her glory, but when she fell her ponderous ruin 
overwhelmed them. Since that, Goth and Saracen, 
Norman, Spaniard, and Bourbon, have lorded it 
over the lovely island, trampled the pasture, and 
oppressed the sheep. Nor are things really better 
now. No complaints can reach the ears of the 
kind-hearted sovereign who fills the throne, nor 
any representations obtain redress from the venal 
officials of the Neapolitan court. The Catanese 
are ridden with taxes, and overburdened with 
poor. They are just now building a new quay at 
their own expense, of which the royal treasury will 
reap the benefit in enormous harbour-dues. The 
cement found on Etna, being of old eruptions, is 
not strong enough to bind the stones. A supply 
was requested from Naples, where a fine rich 
" pozzolana" abounds. For every sack of this the 
Catanians are made to pay the full market value, 
and I saw on the quay that they are obliged to fee 
an officer day and night to watch over it ! This is 
surely somewhat illiberal. 

HOME. 245 



There is something about this " Roma " unlike all 
other capitals. If you see it for the first time, 
though every block and flagstone are new to you, 
you feel as if it were an old friend, at least a scene 
which you have dreamed of all your life. Leave it 
for a season, visit other cities and return : Rome 
seems changed, a new creation. Surely Trajan's 
pillar is taller, and the Coliseum vaster than you 
supposed; St. Peter's dome has a grander swell, 
and the fountains are more life-like and magical. 
Perhaps you quitted it in winter and have come 
back in spring: take a turn on the Pincian and 
mark how the spikes of the cypresses and the um- 
brella-like tops of the stone-pines are varied by 
masses of bright foliage and white blossoms on the 
acacia and chestnut. The very streets are more 
cheerful : the shop-fronts are glittering with new 
models, the picture-dealers have exposed a fresher 
lot, other cardinals roll by in other carriages — a 
former generation has passed away, and you are 

B 3 


pacing the Corso among new faces. Go to the 
Campagna, to renew an old acquaintance with 
Egeria's grotto: it is old no longer; the grot is 
cooler and its fountain fresher; and the unseen 
nymph as she flings a straggling creeper in your 
face laughs at the dreamer who thought, because 
his temples were grown grey or his step less elastic, 
that boon nature has no resource in the spring- 
time and the zephyr. True, the works of man are 
mouldering : while the grove has put forth greener 
shoots, and a heavier crop is waving on the slopes, 
Time's scythe has been mainly busy ; and the " im- 
ber edax " has eaten into brick and marble, tufo 
and travertine, though you cannot find the crumbs 
from such gigantic repast. The most changeless 
features are the face of the Tarpeian and the out- 
line of the Seven Hills : but where arc the royal 
adornments, the "fitting and furnishing" that 
once beautified imperial sites? How heavy is the 
hand of Time ! Do you hear the vaunt of the 
placid Augustus ? "I found Rome all of brick, 
I shall leave it of marble." How sternly the grey- 
beard smiles as he listens to it! Hark! he is 
whetting his scythe — " What a foolish way they 
have of tricking out the crust of this rickety 

koms. 247 

planet ! I have seen Babylon and Nineveh in 
their day; they were a breakfast for me. Here 
is Rome, — her heart swelled with pride, her face 
plastered over with the spoil of the nations, — a 
choice morsel for old Time. I am hungry with 
ranging over the plains of Greece and the steppes 
of the Caucasus. Rome is ripe. By my beard ! 
I will not leave to this overgrown city a temple or 
a palace, a clean arch or a white block — ho ! there 
— the Goth and the Vandal 1 " And what is he 
mumbling now, as he sits over against the fallen 
palace of the Caesars? " I found Rome all marble 
and bronze, squared stones and costly arches : / 
have left it dust and ruin, — a sunken pit and a 
broken column!" 

During the past month we have been on divers 
excursions into the Campagna. Frascati is a 
bower of verdure, lit up with the blossoms of the 
almond and the globe-rose. On the heights of 
Tuscutum we have breathed the purest air of the 
hills and inspected a beautiful bit of old Roman 
pavement. At Grotta Ferrata we found Domeni- 
chino's boldest frescoes; and made acquaintance 
with the original of a Poussin in the graceful 
monastery of Palazzolo built on a cliff which over- 

B 4 


hangs Albano's lake. From the summit of Monte 
Cavi and standing on the site of the temple of 
Jupiter Latialis, amid gleams of sunshine and 
driving mists, we have looked down on the two lakes 
of Albano and Nemi, and counted in fancy the 
thirty cities of Latium. What a scene is here ! and 
what a path loads up the hill and descends again 
to the level of Albano ! You ride through a forest 
of ancient chestnuts, whose domain must at one 
time have been invaded by a whirlwind, for all 
these trees are twisted in the rind like a cable ; 
after this, a winding lane, its banks tufted with 
thyme and orchis shooting up under the thick 
hazels, and some hundred yards of the most per- 
fect Roman road existing. Then there was Castel 
Gandol/Oj with its galleries of ilex, and its Barbe- 
rini Villa, and its emissary on the lake below : and 
Aricia's dewy woods : and Nemi, rock built, with 
its dark volcanic pool sleeping in that mysterious 
hollow. Nearer to Albano are the Tomb of Aruns, 
Porsenna's younger son ; and the Fortress of the 
Savelliy an ivy-clad ruin of the middle ages. Here 
you may forswear butter, that yellow deceit, and 
eat the delicious "ricotta," a something between 
curds and clouted cream. No neighbourhood can 

komb. 249 

be finer : few capitals can boast one half so fine. 
Tivolij in another direction, merits a three-days' 
visit even better, not so much on account of its 
waterfalls and Vesta's temple (called " SibyWs") 
as for its Campagna and the noble remains of its 

In the course of a ride of twenty-eight miles we 
visited five of these latter, and some of them are 
the grandest we have seen. They shoot in bridges 
over deep ravines, tiers of arches clustering with 
forest-trees and brushwood to a height of sixty and 
seventy feet, and patched here and there with 
broad flakes of light on the red stone. In Tivoli, 
you may visit Maecenas* villa, a stupendous toy; 
or Hadrian's, far vaster; or marvel at the petri- 
factions wrought by "praeceps Anio." Hadrian, 
by the by, did not lack taste, despite his hideous 
mausoleum in Koine; he has planted this whole 
district with " melagina," an odoriferous shrub 
bearing a white flower like that of the syringa ; 
the first slip of which he was at the trouble of 
bringing over from Egypt. 

A pretty ride of fourteen miles leads from hence 
to the scene of Horace's Sabine Farm at the foot of 
the M0113 Lucretilis. I found the site a bear- 


garden ; of all his darlings nothing is left but the 
stump of a column. I did not get up the hill to 
Blandusia's fount ; so can't say whether it is still 
" splendidior vitro ; " but, coming back, we had a 
taste of something better designated by the trans- 
atlantic tenn of " clear as mud : " a thunderstorm 
drenched us for two hours, and the river ran away 
with its own banks; passable roads all at once 
became a sonorous bog under our horses' hoofs : — 
but, we made the cattle go; strong round-built 
creatures, who mind nothing but a spur, but when 
that argument is adduced, they cut away like 
ostriches. To my surprise, when we reached 
Tivoli they had not turned a hair. 

We have lately been with a party to see the 
illumination of the statues in the Vatican. A 
striking result is here obtained by means the most 
simple. All that is wanted for the treat is the 
custode's fee for the flambeaux, which is a heavy 
one, so it is better to make one of a large party if 
you have an opportunity. The wax-lights arc 
enclosed in a semicircular shield of tin, acting at 
once as a screen and a reflector ! this throws the 
hall around into deep shadow, while a powerful 
focus of light is brought to bear on the bust or 

KOME. 251 

statue which is being exhibited. The thing which 
by day looked " so coldly sweet, so deadly fair," 
seems now to start into life; every vein and 
muscle protrudes, the eye acquires depth, and the 
mouth expression. I don't know whether the effect 
is most admirable in the sterner forms or in those 
of softer beauty. Perhaps the " Minerva Medica " 
was now the finest of all the marbles. But the 
" Hercules and infant Bacchus," the " Menander," 
"Antinous," "Demosthenes," were all wonderful 
in their vivid semblance of life. Canova's forms, 
exquisite as they are, lost a little, and betrayed 
their inferiority to the antique, under this search- 
ing test. I am afraid I shall never much care to 
see the statues again by day. After all, is Koine 
anything beyond a treasure-house of other nations' 
labours and inventions? Her "fine arts" were 
all Greek ; her " antiquities " at this day are Egyp- 
tian or Etruscan. Her very " toga," it seems, was 
borrowed from Etruria ; and it is whispered that 
" Purgatory," a graver matter, was first broached 
in Egypt. 

The Carnival has come and gone ; and we have 
seen for several days the gravest people in the 
world give themselves up to sports and disguises 


compared to which a Christmas pantomime is sober 
seriousness. The Corso was a brilliant scene 
towards the hour when the steeds with none to 
ride rush down its glittering vista : here in open 
carriages and cars, on seat and box, or clustering 
in windows and balconies, the Roman dames as- 
sert their claim to being the comeliest in Italy. 
The mad diversion of "Senza Moccolo" on the 
last night was the chief novelty. All the world 
who are abroad carry torches and flambeaux 
which the passers-by exert themselves to extin- 
guish, growling these two words in derision when 
they succeed. The scene is absurd. Strange that 
here, in majestic Rome, the thing goes off admira- 
bly ; while at Naples, where every soul is a na- 
tural mimic or buffoon, the carnival is dull and 

It is a marvel how the same people can keep 
up the carnival, and then celebrate the holy week 
year after year. Nothing can exceed in solemnity 
the offices to which this latter is devoted. Despite 
the crowds of sight-seers, who will treat everything 
here as a theatrical exhibition, the aspect of the 
city has for several days been grave and impres- 
sive. The comparative stillness of the vast multi- 

ROME. 253 

tudes assembling in churches and piazzas; the 
diurnal preachings; the penitent repose of the 
convents, where many noble ladies retire about 
this time for a season of mortification — all this is 
solemn, even outwardly, but much more so when 
you reflect upon it. 

I went early on the morning of Good Friday to 
St. Peter's to hear Padre Ventura preach : I was 
half an hour before the time ; and as I paced the 
aisles and along the glorious transept I thought I 
had never before seen the cathedral to such advan- 
tage. It was a clear morning, and the sun's level 
ray darted through an arched oriel window above, 
and came full on the great mosaic of St. John. 
All down the nave the light softened into a faint 
mist, till it was lost among the pillars and recesses 
of that enormous arcade. The massive golden 
coffers above seemed less heavy, and the marbles, 
too brilliant at noonday for a church, were mel- 
lowed down in the haze of dimness. 

All the crucifixes were veiled, as if to point the 
people's regards on this day from a shadow to the 
substance, and the ever-burning lamps were cxtin? 
guished around th6 Apostles' shrine. I enquired 
of a canonico who passed when the Padre was ex- 


pected: "Adesso comincia," was the reply; and 
we entered the Cappella del Coro. 

Padre Vantura, the Dominican, is a stout man, 
something past middle age, with a full clear voice, 
distinct delivery, and a good deal of action. In a 
discourse of an hour's length I do not know that 
I lost a word. He took as his subject the brazen 
serpent, from the text of St. John's Gospel ; and in 
handling it ranged over many points of connection, 
and brought many striking similitudes to bear in 
illustration. I was edified by his fervid honesty. 
He charged his hearers with corruptness of motive, 
deadness of heart, and lack of divine charity: 
avowing that there is no true freedom but perfect 
freedom, and that if we had the mind of Christ we 
should take his yoke upon us and seek the sal- 
vation of our brethren more earnestly than we at 
present seek our own. The amount of extempore 
eloquence was very great : and it never swelled into 
bombast or strayed into vagueness. Many as were 
the points he touched upon, he was always clear 
and always hit the nail on the head : and reproofs 
and consolations were alike welcomed by his hearers. 

I did not think the grand festa, on Easter day, 
so impressive, but was glad to be present when the 

HOME. 255 

aged pope, to whom we had been presented a short 
time before, delivered the prayer "pro urbe et 
orbe," and gave with uplifted hands the patriar- 
chal blessing. A hundred and fifty thousand 
heads were uncovered in the piazza and its outlets, 
reverent knees bended, and the vast multitude, 
this gracious act completed, returned peaceably 
to their homes. 

St. Peter's and its colonnades were lit up in the 
evening with a delicate array of lamps formed 
with oiled paper ; this was the " silver : " but 
when darkness fell, the second illumination, called 
"the golden," burst out in burning cressets all 
over the mass of building. The effect was very 
good, as all the lights in this quarter of the city 
are quenched, and the enormous cupola and fa9ade 
thus stand out in fiery relief against a compara- 
tively dark ground. The meridians of the dome 
resembled the jewelled arches in a royal crown, 
and the single cross, glittering on high above every 
other visible object, looked cheering and elevating. 

The following night, St. Angelo's castle was the 
theatre of some brilliant fireworks. The " giran- 
dola " or bouquet just at the end is well done : but 
I thought one or two devices exhibited on the 


platform superior to it. Orvieto's matchless ca- 
thedral was sketched in fire. Then there was a 
waterfall, or rather fire-fall. Perhaps the best of 
all was the simplest and most obvious. St. An- 
gelo's presented a beleaguered fortress with its 
huge turrets and battlements. Cannon flashed 
from the ramparts, signal rockets blazed on high, 
amid a running fusillade of small arms. Sud- 
denly all was hushed, darkness fell, and then by 
the agency of a Bengal light the fortress appeared 
on fire, when all ended in the tremendous explo- 
sion, bright as noonday, of the arsenal. 

And thus we are leaving Rome ; filled with ad- 
miration of her beauty, awestruck by the remains 
of her ancient grandeur, but astonished at her 
weakness moral and physical. She is still majestic 
" Roma," and yet she is changed — changed in the 
very conditions of her being. Occupying much of 
the ground covered by the ancient city, and more 
of modern acquisition, she has lost the prestige of 
victory, the inviolable walls within whose circuit 
no conqueror's army might presume to enter, no 
citizen might be interred. Her bishop is a recog- 
nised sovereign, though he cannot be "heredi- 

komb. 257 

tary," with claims which arc heard and felt 
throughout the "orbis tcrrarum," attached, like 
priceless jewels, to the limited circlets of the 
triple crown. Her cardinals are princes, with 
all the talent and more than the taste and erudi- 
tion of the Scipios of old ; but the " amor patriae" 
has dwindled down to time-serving devices, fitted 
perhaps to uphold an artificial system, but inade- 
quate to meet the human wants, the growing de- 
mands of a populous city, and widespread though 
feeble states. 

Among the middling and lower classes, character 
shifts between two extremes, but misses the healthy 
level which was the strength of the republic : an 
Italian will be a cipher, or he will be first rate; 
he will waste his time and energies in cafds and 
conversazioni, or he will redeem literature with 
Cardinal Mai, and emulate the Greek models with 
Canova. " Mediocrity " is the one thing they 
dread; but there is a truth in mediocrity which 
they have overlooked: a humble lot encourages 
content of mind and proffers domestic duties. 
Yet, to avoid sympathising with such a people, 
you must first forget what they once were; it is 
the history of their origin, the long line of their 


early records, which explain their national bearing, 
and palliate if they do not not excuse, much of 
their pride or indolence as a people, and much of 
the ambition of their rulers. 

The theme of the old Romans was conquest, and 
their motto was " Nil admirari." The wealth of 
the East and the polite arts of Greece lay around 
them, and they had pondered well that passage 
in Cyrus's history, where Solon remarks to the 
King of Lydia — lt a little iron will one day take all 
this gold." Their early myths and legends, whether 
we regard them as handed down by tradition, or 
as coined by Livy to please the people, equally 
prove the popular character and bent. They rise, 
' according to this glowing annalist, under the 
auspices of Mars, fearless of the sentence of 
Homer who depicted him as a bully. Their 
founder is suckled by a she-wolf, and grasps the 
sceptre of rule with the unhappy prestige of a 
fratricide, which, nevertheless, forms no obstacle 
to his deification in due time. As they gain 
strength and succeed in fortifying their position 
on the hills, they wax bolder and more warlike. 
The Sabines must part with their wives and 
daughters, and the Latian cities with their territory. 

ROME. 259 

Soon they take a higher and a sterner tone: 
warrior-kings are good to head a movement, but 
the pomp and luxury of a court cramp the 
energies of the rising commonwealth. A flagrant 
instance of royal debauchery occurs amid the 
leisure intervals of a camp life : the honour of a 
private family is stained, and a high-minded but 
innocent woman, unable to brook her wrong, stabs 
herself to the heart in the presence of her husband 
and relatives; the capital is convulsed, the army 
excited ; Brutus, a character long forming for the 
occasion, steps forth to harangue the citizens, and 
the Etrurian dynasty in Rome is at an end. 
Porscnna, King of Clusium, the hero of his nation 
and his day, interposes to restore the Tarquins: 
but the valour of Codes, the stern fortitude of 
Scaevola, the romantic devotion of Clelia, backed 
by a single-minded people and politic senate, 
deter and balk his measures, and the seven-hilled 
city is free, though shorn of half her strength. 
The amity and countenance of many an Etruscan 
ally is gone : but bold hearts aim at high destinies, 
and love to play out the game of conquest single- 
• handed. 

After this, Rome advances on the platform of 

8 2 


the nations as the lion pierces the thickets of the 
forest : before that footstep every other beast 
retires, at that roar every other voice is quelled. 
The choice is small : those who act on the defensive 
are broken and humbled to the condition of 
tributaries; those who, like Hannibal, lead the 
attack, may succeed for a while, but provoke from 
some Cato[the sentence of " Delenda est " on their 
home and city, sure to be fulfilled at last. The 
career of Rome under her consuls and her 
emperors was one continued unrolling of the 
scroll of Daniel's prophecy, filling up the text 
with a living comment, and showing how the beast, 
" dreadful and terrible and strong exceedingly," 
could " devour and break in pieces," and " stamp 
the residue with its feet." Before the tread of her 
legions and the stroke of her battering-ram all 
went down. The powers arrayed against her 
served but to swell her triumphs. . Pyrrhus' 
chivalrous onset and disciplined phalanxes, Hanni- 
bal's generalship and avenging soul, Mithridatcs' 
perseverance and resources, Jugurtha's craft, Syra- 
cusan science, Jewish fanaticism and despair — all 
quailed before the genius and destinies of a people 
whose name was unheard of 800 years before 

HOME. 261 

Christ, and who had been glad to claim for their 
infancy the fostering rule of a Lucumo from the 
city of Tarquinia. 

It is a mistake to suppose that ancient Rome 
was ever a lover of the " fine arts " for themselves : 
she had neither the taste nor the " penchant " of 
Greece in this respect ; she could not have them, 
for their true foundations in her people's charac- 
ter and history were wanting. The fine arts, 
indigenous in Greece and Etruria, found not in 
Rome the cherishing instinct of a foster-mother: 
they became her property and her slaves: she 
hurled them into her treasury ; she bound them in 
triumph to her chariot-wheels, but she never drank 
into their spirit, nor bowed before their humanising 
influence, until her greatness was on the wane, and 
the reins of empire slipping from her hand. 

Then, at length, amidst humiliation and wrong, 
under insult and oppression, Rome learned to feel 
for the human race; and while the Hun made a 
breach in her walls, and the Goth stripped her 
palaces, the mistress of the world, cowering over a 
blackened hearthstone, with the ashes on her head, 
woke to kindlier feelings than those engendered by 
dominion and luxury, and cherishing domestic ties 

8 3 


and affections, prized the mimic portraiture of 
these, and began ere long to emulate the labours 
of the pensive Greek. 

The theme of Greece had never been conquest, 
but something far holier and sweeter — liberty. 
It was this mainspring of action which enlarged 
her conceptions and developed in her cities the 
most perfect works of art, whether we regard the 
design or the execution, that the world ever saw : 
for Art is Nature's daughter, and Natiire loves the 
expansive glow of liberty, and its elastic impulses. 
Greece in her mountain-glens and islands did not 
lust after empire. When the banded princes sailed 
to besiege Hium, it was to avenge a solemn cause, 
to keep a sacred vow : Liberty was her motto : she 
reaped more of real glory at Marathon and Plataea 
than afterwards at Issus and Arbela, and she knew 
it. The fruit from such a tree was kindly and 
generous. " Au fond des choses," Greece was kind, — 
Rome was cruel : Greece embodied more of human- 
heartedness in its patriotism, and found room for 
the little details of domestic affection, which a stern 
son of Rome would slight as beneath his notice. 
Their statues prove this; each group or figure 
illustrates some predominant human attribute or 

ROME. 263 

affection, and shows that the artist wrought " con 
amore." The Apollo is a deliverer ; the Laocoon 
depicts parental love and filial dependence enduring 
amid the destroying wrath of some offended power ; 
the Venus is the personification of modesty, — 
woman's shield and prime ornament ; the group of 
Menelaus and Patroclus shows fidelity and courage 
standing in the breach ; the Dying Gladiator reveals 
and awakens manly tenderness : " Moriens dulces 
reminiscitur Argos," is Virgil's tribute to this 
affectionate people. The Romans, on the other 
hand, had their galleries of busts as moderns have 
a family-tree for the pedigree, and a coat-of-arms in 
proof of the nobility of the bearer. Farther than 
this they went not: full-length figures undraped 
were forbidden, for their minds were too coarse to 
conceive any but a gross idea. 

As strong an argument may be derived from 
architecture, as exhibiting the character of the two 
nations : here the Greek types delineate the lead- 
ing varieties in the two sexes, and prominent points 
in the history of the species ; at least I never look 
at them without thinking so. The Doric seems an 
emblem of gigantic strength, fit to bear up the 
architrave of such temples as those of Psestum, 

8 4 


like fortitude and experience sustaining the cares 
of government in a polity. The Ionic, with its 
simple braid and iillet, expresses woman's elegance 
and loveliness. The Corinthian shows the ornate 
garb of dignity in the state, and was probably 
coeval with the custom of crowning a victorious 
soldier or deserving citizen with a green chaplet. 

On the circle the Greeks took no thought in 
architecture : they needed no arches for triumphs, 
had no " orbis terrarum " for their empire : the 
mysterious unity of the triangle pleased them better, 
and its form served to record histories and dedi- 
cations in a raised pediment. Here architecture 
expanded, after swaddling in Egypt ! and here it 
grew to mature proportions of adult beauty ! The 
Romans came, to conquer the lion's share ; they 
reared the arch, they spoiled the column; they 
built irregular masses, always keeping in view the 
" utile :" yet these vast masses are now mouldering 
into dust, while the delicate Greek outline survives. 
Their satirist said 

" Graculus esuriens in coclum, jusscris, ibit ;" 

but the line is double-edged, and cuts themselves 
as well as the object of their satire. True, they 
starved their captive, and then bid the pliant slave 
fetch models from Olympus; and he did it in 

uomk. 2G5 

every department; — but he did it in vain for 
Rome, while the city was supreme, and the earth 
but a highroad for her legions. But when 
she declined and fell, when the road to further 
violence and conquest was barred for ever, when 
the invader became the invaded, and the universal 
offender was compelled to act on the defensive, 
— then, energies which had always struggled for 
supremacy, sought it in another direction : Rome, 
no longer allowed to conquer and appropriate 
abroad, endeavoured to excel and cherish at home : 
aspirations after the beautiful, which had been 
awed and kept down by iron statesmen and greedy 
warriors, kindled and gained ground. From age 
to age they have gradually advanced : from rude 
mosaics and frescoes by the early converts to the 
stiff but correct outlines of the middle ages, from 
the harsh and meagre forms of Cimabue to the full 
and beautiful ones of Giotto ; from Giotto to Perugino 
and Francia ; from these to RaffaeUe and Domeni- 
chino : throughout, the struggle for excellence has 
been evinced ; and if Italians are proud and happy 
now, it is not because they can ever hope to rule 
the world by arms or policy, under pope or em- 
peror, again, but because they are the acknowledged 


undisputed captains of the fine arts. They have 
Micliael Angelo's and Brunelleschi's domes, liafaelle'a 
cartoons and oils, Donatello's and Canova's statues, 
and they despise from the bottom of their hearts 
the " barbarians," who can achieve nothing more 
exquisite, attempt nothing more sublime, than a 
railroad, a double-barrelled detonator, or a Stilton 

At "dominion" they now smile, and will tell 
you that popes and princes have caressed Raffaelle, 
and ennobled Canova ; that Francis I. addressed a 
begging autograph letter to Michael Angelo, and 
Charles V. stooped to pick up Titian's brush. 

As for the nation of " haughty shopkeepers," 
they may well laugh at us, according to the old 
proverb, while our money is spent among them 
alike by duke and don, peer and prelate; and 
while our " scienziati " for the first season or two 
in Rome regularly " go to school " to learn what 
statuary and painting mean, and how columns can 
be reared and fountains made to flow. 

It is true that the present generation of Italians 
has fallen behind in many respects ; but it is also 
true that many an Italian appears listless and in- 
dolent nowadays for want of a worthy object being 

ROME. 267 

propounded to him ; he may have larger ideas than 
others around him, and for that very reason be 
unwilling to toil for trifles. 

Just now they are heavily burdened here in 
Rome : government is poor in exchequer, and weak 
in political resources ; many of the state-prisons are 
full: signs of discontent are thickening in the pro- 
vinces, and Austria's arm alone upholds visibly the 
mitred ruler. The Church, moreover, externally is 
too much of a metier ; this kills life and joy, and 
must operate to quench inspiration; they may possi- 
bly know more, but they believe less than of old, and 
the exchange is a bad one. Still, Italian merit in 
all departments is very great. There are very few 
paths in which they have not led the way, and ge- 
nerally reached the climax of excellence, which 
other people of Europe have afterwards used as a 
model. In works on theology, in scientific re- 
searches and their practical application, in history, 
in poetry, and the belles lcttrcs, in all which per- 
tains to the fine arts or tends to develop them, they 
have been the teachers of Western Europe ; and 
in individual instances they still are. We prize 
Hooker, and justly, in England : but every reader 
of Thomas Aquinas knows how largely the author 


of " Ecclesiastical Polity " was indebted to him. 
The idea, if not the composition, of some of the Eng- 
lishman's noblest passages may be found in the terse 
" Qusestiones " of the meditative Italian. How well 
Boccaccio wrote history ! In poetry, what names of 
super-excellence ! Dante had no original, and has 
found no followers, save that Milton, unapproach- 
able alike, has nevertheless now and then taken a 
feather from his wing. Petrarch's chaplet is bu- 
ried with him. Tasso is Virgil's true successor, 
and his " Aminta " is more elegant than the 
Eclogues. Perhaps Ariosto is the most genuine 
son of the Muses among them all. 

Then, in fugitive pieces, what exquisite gems lie 
scattered over the pathway of their literature! 
Dante's Sonnet addressed to Beatrice when he was 
but thirteen ; Filicaja'a Lament, almost unmatched 
as yet in his own or any language; Manzoni's 
" II cinque maggio," far superior in real merit to 
Byron's " Ode on Napoleon." 

I have read but one Italian novel carefully 
through, — "I promessi Sposi," — it is the "Vicar of 
Wakefield" of Italy, and whoever would become 
acquainted with the people, must study it. Now 
this work is in some respects beyond praise; yet 

ROME. 2G9 

his countrymen scarcely think it worthy of Man- 
zoni's powers; an Italian gentleman observed to 
me, — " It is good, but he could have done better." 
I scarce ever heard such a compliment to a writer's 
genius. In the drama, Italians have one great 
name, Alfieri, immensely inferior to Shakespeare, 
as who is not ? but is he inferior to Schiller f — Are 
there not in his " Oreste" and his " Saul" touches 
of nature, which come home to the heart with 
more power than the magnificent, but stilted 
paragraphs of the German? How exquisite is 
the pathos of the following scene, especially its 
concluding stanza ! Orestes, in disguise, questions 
his mother : — 

Clitennestra. Oreste, ainato Oreste, 

Tutto saper di te vogF io ; ne cosa 
Niuna udir piu, fuor cbe di te. 

Oreste. Lo amavi 

Tu dunque molto ancora ? 

Clitennestra. O giovinetto, 

Non hai tu madre? 

For the same reason, because nature is, beyond 
art, I think Silvio Pellico's " Prigioni" preferable 
to the compositions of the Frenchman's pet, — Law- 
rence Sterne. 

Looking to more substantive matters, we should 


thank Florence for our knowledge of architecture 
and hydrostatics; Pisa and Genoa, for the con- 
fidence of marine enterprise; Bologna, for juris- 
prudence ; Padua, for medical and botanical 
researches. All Europe owes Italy a debt, though 
all have not profited equally. 

In the department of music, England has reaped 
the richest harvest from this exuberant soil; partly 
owing to our wealth, but more, I think, to our 
social habits of domestic life ; for it should never 
be forgotten that it is the fireside circle, and not 
clubs and caf6s, which is truly social. Hence the 
French, who exist for " soirees" and " reunions," 
are less musical as a people. Even in Italy you 
will seldom hear the best music at " conversazioni ; " 
certainly not the most pleasing, scarcely ever what 
may be called a national air : % these latter greet 
you on the quays and piazzas, in the fishermen's 
boats, or from some cottage on the Campagna. A 
few among the Neapolitan " canzonetti" of this 
description are pretty and plaintive; but they do 
not seem to me to touch so deep a chord as the 
simple airs of Scotland, or the Swiss " Ranz des 

The landscape scenery is perhaps the greatest 

ROME. 271 

charm of Italy, and you do not surfeit of this 
as you easily may of objects of art. England 
is unquestionably a finer country on the whole, 
owing to its high cultivation; but Italy has far 
more of pictorial beauty ; melting tints, receding 
distances, foregrounds of chiar'oscuro, such as 
Poussin loved. Romantic it is not, because beauty 
of the highest order is here, as it were, at home, 
and home has content, but not romance. Strange 
to say, there is more of romance in a German 
u wald," a Scotch glen, or an English heath, than 
in an Apennine or Umbrian landscape. 

After Sicily, the scenes which have struck me 
most arc the environs of Naples, and certain spots 
on the Campagna of Rome. In excursions, the 
great thing is to avoid making too long ones at a 
time. It is dangerous in this country to get tired 
out. An old peasant at Tivoli told me that in 
most cases it is " stanchezza" (weariness) which 
brings on the worst attacks of malaria, for your 
muscles are then unbraced, and you cannot resist 
a noxious influence [Note (A.)]. I have observed 
the Romans are on their guard in this respect; 
they will not journey far at one time, nor work 
long without taking rest. Under the burning 


noonday sun, you will sec the driver fast asleep on 
his ox-cart, while the team pursue their way over 
the broken roads of the Campagna. The wisest, 
however, dismount, unyoke the cattle, and lie down 
to sleep in the shadow of the cart. 


End of May. 

Here is the city of clocks and botanical gardens, 
with the wondrous church of St. Antonio, which 
boasts a dozen domes and half a dozen turretted 
spires. Seventeen thousand rare plants arc now 
in the garden ! In the chapel of Sta. Maria Annun- 
ziata we have just seen Giotto's frescoes covering 
two entire wainscots ; these are in some respects 
superior to those in the vaulted roof at Assisi. 
One which represents the Resurrection is especially 
beautiful, and a Madonna suckling the child in u 
panel near the altar. 

We took a new line of country from Rome 
hither, passing through Orvieto and Bologna, and 
then diverging from the usual track for the sake 

TAPUA. 273 

of a peep at the old town of Ravenna* The whole 
of this route is deeply interesting. At Viterbo 
there is a peerless fountain, which you should step 
out and see by moonlight. The road from hence 
to Orvieto is magnificent; the soil prodigiously 
rich, and yielding lavish crops despite of its poor 
cultivation : were this district in Tuscany instead 
of being in the Papal States, it would be brought 
to produce double what it does at present. I noted 
two sorts of gumcistus, purple and white, growing 
wild ; and a rare geranium. 

Orvieto is as well worth a visit as our city of 
York, and I can't say more. The Gothic cathedral 
is exquisite : Mr. Gaily Knight should pass a 
month here ; the drawings would fill a handsome 
folio, and I think here are points of architecture 
which can be matched nowhere else. 

Outside the church, the pilasters are carved in 
bas-reliefs by the two Pisani, Giovanni and Nicolo. 
Within, you are lost in admiration, and it requires 
an effort to methodise your impressions and mark 
somewhat in detail the glorious objects around you. 
The windows are all delicate-cut " lancet;" stained 
gloss filling the upper portion, and the lower 
compartment consisting of a plate of oriental ala- 


baster which transmits golden light : I never saw 
any thing resembling this elsewhere. Works of art 
abound : near the altar is Scalza'a famous " Pietk," 
and the Annunciation by Mochi, in which Mary is 
as rugged and stern as Boadicea, a singular fancy 
of the sculptor's. A chapel contains, in frescoes of 
the largest size, Luca Signorellfs " History of Anti* 
christ ;" also his painting of the Last Resurrection. 
The first of these forms a stupendous series, where 
one's admiration is divided between the artist's 
diligent study of Scripture, and his bold genius 
shown in its illustration. Antichrist seems to embody 
all that is crafty, mighty, and godless. The scene 
in which he is preaching to the multitudes, the evil 
spirit prompting him in the ear, is a masterly 
sketch. In the painting of the Resurrection, 
sublime and beautiful groups are as frequent as 
horrible and despairing ones: a matter in which 
he has shown more edifying tact than Michael 
Angelo; for, why multiply the representation of 
evil and horror? One group with one figure 
especially is here, more noble and pleasing than 
any thing I can remember of Raffaelle's. I went 
down the Pozzo di San Patrizio : 500 steps up 
and down this well, dug to ensure supplies of 

PAPUA. 275 

water to the garrison ; for Orvieto, long a strong- 
hold of the popes, is built on a singular basaltic 
rock, whose situation and height preclude the pos- 
sibility of a spring on its own level. The guide 
could not tell why they dedicated it to the patron 
saint of Erin. An Irish business, truly* 

In Chiusi we visited four museums ; they are 
rich in antiques, but not equal to Cav. Campagna's 
collection at Rome. I was most struck with some 
bronze " specchj," for which, by the bye, they ask 
enormous prices even on the spot. At Signor 
Casuccini's there were some noble terra cottas; 
one of them portrays a touching scene, the death 
of a beloved wife : the attitude of the spouses, her 
hand laid on his shoulder, and the angel of death 
separating them, is rendered with an effect of 
pathos which I am not quite sure that I have seen 
equalled in a painting. In the " Vigna grande " 
sepulchre are some very curious frescoes, illustrat- 
ing divers Etruscan customs. 

Coming through Florence, I was fortunate enough 
to obtain from one of the booksellers on the Lung' 
Arno, who lost, by the bye, 50,000 francs by the 
late flood, a copy of Fossombroni's tract on the 
subject of the Chiana and this river : this copy had 

T 2 


been several days under water, of which it bears 
evident marks, forming a singular record of the 
truth of its contents. After this, we slept a night 
at CovigliajOj among the Apennine summits : here 
we found the full advantage of following in the 
wake of an empress; Nicholas's better half had 
passed through a little before. Some years since 
this was a wretched place with the worst accom- 
modation; but the Czarina brought every thing 
with her, even to tables, a tea-service, and carpets. 
All this " supcllcx" she bequeathed to the host 
after her night's rest ; so we were lodged in clover. 

Of all the towns in Italy, Bologna is one of the 
nicest and cleanest, and the rich plain in which it 
stands reminds one of Kent. It teems with objects 
of art, and with the remains of former wealth and 
grandeur ; but like all cities whose day is gone by, 
there is a tinge of sadness mingling with its most 
glowing scenes, and, above all, your footstep sounds 
lonely and strange in the halls and saloons of the 
old palaces. 

Next to the Asinelli tower, above 300 feet high, 
and the leaning Garisenda, the most prominent 
object is San LucoHs Church, to which you mount 
by a covered gallery above a mile in length, 

TADUA, 277 

climbing the cliff, and arriving at a stupendous 
Apennine view from its summit. 

In the " Belle Arti" are some of the best pic- 
tures of Italy: here you may study the three 
Caracci in all their styles. Ludovico Caracci's 
" Madonna and Child," known by the half-moon 
and the veil thrown over the Virgin's head, I 
thought an exquisite painting. 

Domenichino'8 picture of the " Persecutions of 
the Church" has a group of two sisters embracing, 
which to my mind surpasses any thing else he has 
done. The famous " Santa Cecilia," by Raffaette, 
a little disappointed us, perhaps from having heard 
so much about it : St. Paul is a noble figure, but 
the general outline and colouring of the group 
seemed hard. 

In the Piazza where San Petronio's Church stands, 
the Bolognese have a fountain of which they are 
justly proud; the work of their famed citizen 
Giovanni. The device is a Neptune with nymphs 
and tritons ; nothing can be bolder or more original 
than these sculptures. I have seen nothing equal 
to them. The " Sirens," at Messina, come nearest. 

San Petronio itself is a prodigious edifice, and 
the windows of its nave display stained glass 

T 3 


equal to that in Perugia. This building is un- 
finished, as the facade shows, by its indented surface 
still waiting for a marble coating — an ornament 
it may now probably never get, though a box 
within with the inscription " Offerta per la facciata 
di questa insigne basilica," occasionally receives a 
few " bajocchi." I saw a working-man planted 
opposite to this box for some seconds in mute 
astonishment; he was doubtless marvelling at the 
sanguine expectations announced on its lid. The 
Bolognese, indeed, are not much given to parting 
with their ready cash. 

" Quattro scudi ! chi da ?" saluted my ears 
as I crossed the piazza ; " un bellissimo quadro 
per quattro scudi — solamente quattro scudi!" 
So said the auctioneer, exposing at the same time 
a hideous daub of some eight feet by six, repre- 
senting the " miracolo" of the saint bringing 
back the horse's hoof from the forge newly 
shod, and fitting it on to the bleeding leg, from 
which he had cut it off for the sake of expe- 
dition. A crowd of some twenty persons stood 
round, patiently regarding the picture, but no one 
opened their lips : some were smoking, some winking 
at each other. One wag at length suggested that 

PADUA. 279 

the price was marvellous low, but " still he had 
better knock it down for that, arid proceed to other 
.treasures." The auctioneer hereupon took to 
quizzing a long-backed dog the speaker had with 
him, and so wittily, that the other was glad to 
sheer off. The " bellissimo quadro " was then do- 
serted awhile, and its guardian began refreshing 
himself with oranges from a stall. I dare say this 
specimen of the saint's farriery may have a run of 
a month, though I suppose not a very profitable one. 
From Bologna we diverged forty miles out of 
the main road to visit Ravenna. Here we spent 
two days among churches and basilicas, affording 
the earliest instances existing of the Byzantine- 
Gothic : I felt in looking at them the want of some- 
thing with which to compare them ; they are very 
different from those in Rome and elsewhere. The 
richest of all is San Vitale : its form within is oc- 
tagonal, with clusters of pillars at the angles ; and 
the general idea was taken, it is said, from St. So- 
phia's Church at Constantinople, which must, how- 
ever, be a far larger building. The mosaics which 
vault the choir are very ancient and exceedingly 
beautiful. Moses is here, tending the sheep on 
Mount Horeb; and Abraham, entertaining the 

T 4 


heavenly visitants, while Sarah laughs behind the 
door. There is something in the simple por- 
traying of Scripture narrative by the early Chris- . 
tian artists very impressive : it has none of the 
dash and mannerism of modern times, but it is far 
more real in the effect produced. 

San ApoUinare Nuovo has twenty-four columns of 
Greek marble brought from Constantinople. This 
church Theodoric built for his Arian bishops. Mosaics 
run all along the frieze of the nave : towards the 
porch you may see Classis with the sea and ships, 
a curious record; and Thcodoric's palace, as it 
then was : nothing is left of this latter now but a 
bit of dead wall. 

San ApoUinare in Classe lies without the gates, 
towards the Pineta. Classis was of old the station 
of the Roman fleet ; but now the alluvial matter 
has encroached for some miles upon the bay, and 
many an acre of dark peat and marshy ground 
coated with bulrush, dams up the harbour where 
once the galleys rode. This church dates from 
534 of our era, and their bishops from A. D. 74 : 
the present archbishop, Cardinal Falconieri, is their 
126th prelate ; a line approaching in number that 
of the popes of Rome. Here is Otho's stone, with 

PADUA. 281 

an inscription recording the penance he did after 
murdering Crescentius. The tribune is coated 
with mosaics of the sixth century, beautifully fresh 
at this day. Moses and Elijah are here, and three 
sheep, meant for Peter, James, and John. Also, 
S. Apollinaris in his episcopal robes, preaching to 
a flock of snowy sheep in a green meadow : all in 
the mosaic. Over the cross are the ." Salus Mun- 
di," the A and Q, and the symbolical i^du^ 
How these old emblems lay hold on a man's spirit ! 

Is not this quaint, Byzantine style of architec- 
ture, after all, as church-like as the gorgeous 
mediaeval forms of the Gothic ? Are not these old 
churches of Ravenna more solemn and suitable 
than many magnificent structures of later date in 

Dante 9 s Tomb is a poor thing in itself and ill- 
placed. But here rest the ashes of "II gran' 
padre Alighier'." And here they ought ever to 
rest rather than in Florence, for here the broken- 
hearted man found kindness and hospitality. 

We drove to the " immemorial " pine-grove, 
which stretches for twenty-five miles along the 
shores of the Adriatic. The beauty of this forest 
is due to two features seldom found united; a 


bright green copsewood of oak and other shrubs 
covering the soil, and far overhead the towering 
pines spreading a continuous roof of verdure, 
through whose gaps and crevices the sunlight 
glances down and strikes on red stems and 
branches. Here we found the pine-kernel esta- 
blishment of the Papal States, no despicable source 
of emolument. The scene is a singular one with- 
out doors and within : vast meadows are strewn 
with the newly gathered fruit, spread out to dry ; 
this is the first process; elsewhere the kernels, 
shelled out by thousands of bushels, are piled in 
heaps : the nut is almost as delicious as an almond. 
Some scores of both sexes are domiciled in the 
factory, where they have separate establishments ; 
fine, wild, healthy-looking creatures, delighted 
with their occupation in the best climate of Italy. 
The forest is traversed by green rides like those 
in an English nobleman's preserve. I heard there 
is fine shooting here of duck and wild boar. 

Galla FUmdids Mausoleum is magnificent, but 
heavy. TTieodoric'a, without the gates, is a solid 
rotunda, whose elliptical roof, thirty feet in dia- 
meter, and some two hundred tons in weight, is 
of one block of marble. Where they cut it, or 

PADUA. 283 

how they raised it, is matter of marvel. The 
inner floor cannot be examined, as it is flooded 
several inches deep. 

Ferrara followed on Ravenna, and we stopped 
to see Tasso's Dungeon, where he was confined for 
seven long years. A more horrible record is in 
the gloomy castle, where a former duke put his 
wife and son to death. These cells are fearful 
things : the light did not reach Hugo's, till it had 
filtered through thirteen gratings of iron bars. 
Without lies the dark moat. What a father of 
his people was this duke! His own flesh and 
blood, if indeed guilty, he might have imprisoned 
for life, but where was the authority for putting 
them to death ? Even on constructive " treason," 
why secretly? Why was Parisina executed in 
the dungeon ? Did this man ever read the eighth 
chapter of St. John's Gospel ? 

At the end of the dungcon-passagc protrudes 
the edge of a huge tower, reaching from the bat- 
tlements to the depths of a fosse below the moat. 
This is now walled up. When first opened, hu- 
man bones were found in heaps, confirming a fear- 
ful talc which had been whispered before. Through 
its upper orifice this same duke was wont to hurl 


headlong, in the course of a confidential walk on 
his battlements, those whom he had reasons for 
disliking. What an upright judge ! Thank God ! 
those days at least are over. 


" There is a glorious city in the sea, 
The sea is in the broad, the narrow streets, 
Ebbing and (lowing ; and the salt sca-weod 
Clings to the marble of her palaces." 

End of May. 
Eveby one quotes Rogers on Venice, and every one 
must, till descriptive lines as good shall be penned 
on the " city in the sea." He does not notice the 
crab and the rat, probably as not deeming them 
poetical: the former is on all the piles, and the 
latter running across the watery threshold of the 
stately palaces. The city is now entered by a 
railway line crossing the lagoons : this so far mars 
the romance of the thing ; but, once in, all is novel, 
wondrous, witch-like. The effect of the grand 
canal is unique: a noble city flooded would pre- 

VENICE. 285 

sent an aspect of ruin ; here it is a scene of calm 
repose. The width of the canal doubles, trebles that 
of almost any street in Christendom : exquisite 
palace-fronts line its sides, each with its semicir- 
cular flight of stone steps plunging down into the 
wave, and its ring of striped posts to protect the 
gondolas of the household. Gothic windows rise 
tier above tier, with tracery-work in stone, too rich 
for aught but the pencil to describe ; shadowy 
blinds and curtains of gauze, through which the 
light plays upon gilded furniture within : here, a 
conservatory, with its bright geraniums and bal- 
sams; there, a breakfast table set out under the 
"Venetian" on the cool balcony. Anon, a half 
ruined and quite deserted mansion, rich with the 
tints laid on by that shrewd colourist Time, but 
empty of its pristine mirth and splendour. As you 
advance, the fair cupola of Sa. Maria delta Salute 
swells upon the sight, and then the glittering 
Palace of the Doges, with the spires and domes of 
St Mark, is at your prow, and the enormous 
Campanile) where the golden angel on the summit 
flaps his wings, as if just alighting to greet the 
stately city. Meanwhile, no streets are visible ; or 
rather, the canal is the street : instead of the jarring 


sound of wheels on a dusty pavement, noiseless 
gondolas skim around you in their black paint and 
black cloth canopy, the latter, the fruit of a govern- 
ment order long ago, when it was found that the 
Venetian nobles were ruining themselves in trap- 
pings of velvet and cloth of gold. The gondola 
has a well-stuffed cushion for two, one oar at least 
behind the canopy, and one before, a peaked stern, 
a beak of steel at the prow, the proportions of a 
canoe, and the speed of a dolphin. During 
day, few are abroad, save such as carry visitors 
pressed for time to view the Titians : but as evening 
draws on, the surface of the water becomes an 
agitated sea ; hundreds of gondolas are flying in 
every direction, and the boats of the Podesti, six- 
oared and eight-oared, cleave their way through the 
lighter craft, as the armed pike dashes among the 
minnows. Eow out past the gardens, cross that 
sandy neck of "dunes" beyond the lagoon, and 
you reach the Lido, where is a delicious ramble 
along the edge of the breaking wave for several 
miles. In your way, you will note features recall- 
ing Naples, though there all is stir and noise, 
while here is the region of calm repose : yonder is 
a man quietly seated on one of the sea-piles ; his 

VENICE. 287 

legs arc knec-decp in the water, and he is inhaling 
the fragrant weed, musing, perhaps, all the time, 
on the Foscari and the Contarini of other days. 

The Piazza of San Marc is alike majestic and 
beautiful at noon or at nightfall: perhaps for 
certain chiaroscuro effects, as that of the huge ochre- 
coloured Campanile relieved by a dark sky in which 
the summer lightning is brewing, a late hour at eve 
is preferable. But, either way, when you contem- 
plate the Basilica and the Palace of the Doges, you 
will make up your mind not to attempt the descrip- 
tion of a scene so little conceivable. They talk of 
" speaking portraits," but what canvass ever told a 
talc so profoundly eloquent, so historically grand, 
as the fortunes of Venice recorded in her glorious 
Piazza ? Rome affects you like a by-gone vision ; but 
when you stand in the Piazza of St. Mark, the vision 
is present. The stately trophies, the gorgeous build- 
ings, the brilliant bazaars, the singular costumes, — 
all bespeak the middle age, and the crowning city, 
whose merchants, like those of Tyre, were princes. 
Those three masts in front of the Basilica are 
trophies from Crete and Cyprus and the Morea. 
Yonder, over the azure clock, the two bronze giants 
are about to strike the hour on the great bell, — 1, 


2, 3, 4 : out come the Moorish figures al the gilt 
door on the left, wheel round the Madonna, and 
enter at the little door on the right, which closes 
after them. They no longer strike to chronicle 
the epochs of Venetian glory ; but images do not 
grieve, else these ancient servitors would be too 
heavy at heart to lift their hammers. One of those 
pillars bears the Winged Lion of St. Mark, on the 
other stands St. Theodor, the former patron, with 
his crocodile. Over St. Marc's portal are the four 
bronze horses of Lysippus, once coated with gold ;" 
you see they have come back from the Louvre, and 
are as proud as ever, tossing their beautiful heads 
and lifting each a hoof, as who should say — " No- 
thing was ever cast so faultless as we." 

Crowds of pigeons are wheeling round the Piazza, 
enjoying the freedom ensured them by some noble 
lady, who left by will a dower for that end. But 
the swallows are less fortunate. What is that 
whirling down from the Campanile's balustrade ? it 
is a swallow in a poke : some wags above have been 
launching in mid-air pieces of card with a hole 
punched in the centre. The birds dash at them, 
gain a white collar, and are presently captured by 
the boys below. 

VENICE. 289 

In Venice the best way is to engage your gon- 
dola by the week, and a guide by the day ; no city, 
with the exception of Rome, contains more that is 
worthy to be visited. 

Wc have wandered over the Doge's Palace, and 
loitered up the Giants' Staircase, often turning 
round to gaze on Sansovino's beautiful Eve, which 
faces it; and have been " ciceroned " through the 
State Dungeons, and over the Bridge of Sighs, and 
have strayed along the Rialto, and handled the 
stump of the Bucentaur'a mast in the recesses of the 

For one who has never seen them before, the 
paintings here possess an absorbing interest. In 
the " Belle Arti " you will find Titian's " Assump- 
tion," and # his " Presentation of the Virgin." 
Among many wonderful productions, these two are 
perhaps his best; the apparent motion upwards 
communicated to the figure of the Madonna in the 
former is a triumph of the art. The " Presentation " 
is, however, a more pleasing picture, as I think 
everybody will agree. 

This subject is surely more simple, more gracious, 
more really instructive than the endless tribe of 
" Assumptions of the Virgin," with which Roman 



Catholic painters beguile the eyes and hearts of the 
members of that church. Here a real incident is 
portrayed, in the heaven-taught era of childhood, 
in the life of one whose riper age was fraught with 
the unspeakable blessing. 

The " Miracle of the Slave," by Tintoretto ; the 
" Supper," by Paul Veronese (Calieri), and the 
" Virgine col Putto " (with the date of 1487), by 
Giovanni BeUino, are very extraordinary works. 

Tintoretto has given me new ideas of what may 
be done in colouring ; his " Bacchus and Ariadne," 
in the Doge's Palace, is one of the cleverest pic- 
tures I ever saw ; and the " Repose in Egypt," at 
the Scuola di S. Bocco } introduces as sweet a land- 
scape as ever was designed. 

In the Palazzo Manfrini are Titian's portrait of 
Ariosto ; and his " Golden Age : " these are remark- 
able even here. The Ariosto is as well painted and 
as effective as the Cenci at Eome. It has the 
same peculiar power of rivetting the attention, and 
setting the fancy to work; a power which is, I 
think, confined to heritable portraits, and is rarely 
met with even in these. Doge FoscarPs monument 
stands in the Church of the Frari. I thought this 
beautiful and appropriate : the females of his family 

VENICE. 291 

are sculptured round the bier. h\ this church 
Canova is buried. 

We have passed a delightful afternoon at the 
Armenian College, where many strangers resort, 
and where all should go who love to hear concern- 
ing a patriarchal faith and the simple customs of 
a blameless life from the lips of some who at 
once teach and practise. 

I do not know why I should here deny myself 
the pleasure of mentioning by name one of the 
ordained professors in the society, — P. Gr6gorio 
Dr. Alcpson. A conversation of two hours' dura- 
tion, renewed on a subsequent day, left me with 
a very pleasing impression of this gentleman's 
manner of life and of his hopes and objects. 

Though content and happy to live thus at San 
Lazzaro, I found him passionately attached to his 
own country ; a country which he assured me far 
surpasses Italy in natural beauty. 

On the whole, the impression left by this superb 
city is one of sadness. Her days are done, but it 
cannot be added that her fame is begun: that 
chapter is closed. Lombardy is now an Austrian 
province; and the rule, though doubtless wise 
under the circumstances of Italy, is simply that of 

u 2 


mechanism, which of course never feels. I just 
now saw some of their recruiting officers, with 
Venetian soldiers newly pressed, weeping in the 
gondola. I thought of those beautiful lines in 
the u Madre Italiana : " — 

" Lo scttimo — c il suo figlio 1 — climan* vcrgognato, 
Al cenno iiisolcnto iV CBtnino solduto 
Coll' aquila in fronte vcdrallo partir ! n 

The last of the Foscari, after long begging his 
bread on the quays and canals, is now applying for 
the place of porter at a private palace ! Alas ! 
what a wreck is this ! 


Here is Lombardy's capital; with the matchless 
Gothic cathedral, S. Ambrosio's basilica, the Ccna- 
colo, the Brcra gallery, and the Bibliotcca, — besides 
five hundred other "lions," which we shall not 
tarry for. 

Milan is, indeed, a noble city, worthy to queen 
it even over such fair towns as Verona, Vicenza, 
and Brescia, which all lay on the road from Padua 

MILAN. 293 

hither. In Verona are the tombs of the Scaligeri, 
"grande decus," and the Captdete' house. From 
the latter juts forth the identical balcony out of 
which Juliet communed with her Romeo: — 

" But soft, what light through yonder window brooks! 
It is the cast* and Juliet is the sun I" 

What a wizard was Will Shakspeare ! We were 
as eager to see this rude balcony of stone as if it 
had been a shrine, and we, saints on a pilgrimage. 

Yesterday, we scaled the roof of the Duomo, 
and walked round the gallery which circles under 
its loftiest tower. This roof, when you are on it, 
is a sloping park of marble, white as porcelain, and 
studded with pinnacles and turrets, whose Gothic 
niches contain every one an exquisite statue. 
Others of colossal size are ranged along the battle- 
ments ; there are already above eight thousand in 
all, but fully three thousand more additional pin- 
nacles are needed before the entire structure can bo 
pronounced complete. This, the Italians say, will 
demand three centuries ; I suppose, to furnish the 
needful funds. In reply, I asked our informant how 
long he counted upon the world's lasting. The 
cathedral is pure and church-like within, its vast 
Gothic arches and vaults being more reverend, 

u 3 


though less gorgeous than the nave of St. Peter's. 
The richest object is the tomb of San Carlo Bon % o- 
meo. Here the jewelled "pala" surpasses even 
that of San Marc in Venice, though the latter 
exhibits all that Byzantium could furnish. Trans- 
parent plates of rock crystal of the largest size and 
rarest beauty enclose the bier on which the saint's 
mortal body lies; through these it is plainly visible, 
as also the costly offerings suspended over it : one 
of which is a cross of the finest emeralds in the 
known world, presented by Maria Theresa. 

S. Ambrosio'a Church is every bit as rich : the 
high altar is faced with plates of solid gold, and 
the sides and back with silver. The relievos on 
the latter portray the main events in the life of 
this remarkable man. At San Carlo there is a 
similar series. 

Leonardo da VincFs " Cena," is in the refectory 
of Sta. Maria delle Grazie. Little can now be made 
out of this once matchless production : the head of 
the Saviour is the most distinct, but that has 
apparently been retouched. If great authorities 
are right on the point, the entire work would have 
endured to this day had the artist wrought in 
fresco instead of in oils. Yet Leonardo's idea was 

MILAN. 295 

doubtless to provide for durability, as well as foB 
richness of effect : he probably took into account 
the refuge afforded by a sanctuary, little dreaming 
of the panel-door made by the monks afterwards. 
The only consolation now is to turn from a peeled 
and faded original to the noble engraving executed 
by Morghen. 

The Brera gallery is good, though of course 
vastly inferior to some in Venice. Guercino's 
" Dismissal of Hagar," — " Paul rebuking Peter," 
by GuidOj and a "^Nativity," by Camitto Procaccino } 
pleased us the most. 

Hagar's countenance, with the tear in her eye 
and the grieved look of half-incredulous reproach 
which she casts at the patriarch, is admirably 
conceived : it is become the fashion to undervalue 
this, but I know not why. 

The Biblioteca Ambrosiana is cautiously ex- 
hibited. The rarest manuscripts arc not shown 
at all: and the others appear through a veil of 

This city is a very fine one. [Note (A).] 

U 4 



Lucerne, June 12. 
Last night we arrived here, having crossed the 
summit of Mount St Gothard the day before. 
The pass was stormy, and the cold severe ; walls 
of snow being piled on both sides. 

Descending, we came through the Urnerloch, 
and looked on the rainbow of the Reuse, where 
the torrent dashes under the deviVs-bridge. The 
rock scenery here was stupendous. This Lake of 
Lucerne is " allerschonste " at the Uri end ; but we 
have not forgotten Como, equal in beauty to any 
lake I ever saw. We have another reminiscence 
of it besides its loveliness. Returning from 
Bellaggio we got into a scrape, and were very near 
becoming food for fishes. We had a little narrow 
il contrabands," chosen for the sake of its speed, 
and when we arrived at the commencement of the 
three mile reach of precipitous rocks, where it is 
impossible to land, seventeen miles lay between us 
and Como. It was eight p. m. The storm awoke 
suddenly, as is the way in these parts. The lightning 


flashed almost without intervals. Rain descended 
in spouts, and the thunder bellowed among the hills. 
Our boatmen dreaded a " tetnporale," which they 
declared must capsize us, if it came, by turning 
the vessel keel uppermost, for it comes witli a 
whirlwind gust, and ploughs up the' water where 
it strikes. 

For fully twenty minutes we crept thus along 
the lake's edge like frightened wildfowl, the storm 
raging without intermission. During the mur- 
kiest part of it a trout of twelve lbs. threw himself 
completely out of the water close to our boat ; this 
is the worst sign possible. Nevertheless, by dint 
of hard pulling we passed the reach, made a sandy 
cove, and found shelter for two hours in the house 
of a hospitable silk-worker. 

Here occurred one of the few opportunities 
we enjoyed in Italy of observing, without guise or 
previous preparation, the people's domestic life. 
For the Italians are shy of us as a nation, on ac- 
count of our supposed wealth ; and often incur the 
reputation of being inhospitable, while they are, in 
fact, not acting from niggardly motives at all, but 
from the wish to hide from " grandeur's disdainful 
smile " their simple household arrangements and 

« u 5 


" curta supellex." On this occasion, though abso- 
lute strangers, we were kindly, even tenderly wel- 
comed, in the bosom of as well-ordered and gra- 
ciously mannered a family as I have seen any- 
where. It consisted of a father and mother, with 
one married daughter and her children, and three 
other unmarried girls verging on adult woman- 
hood. After doing their best to establish us in 
comfortable seats, they pressed upon us such re- 
freshments as they had ready, and even invited 
us to join the household meal in another room. 
Conversation turned on divers topics, and we were 
struck with the good breeding and tact evinced by 
both parents and daughters. 

Re-embarking, we did not reach Como until two 
in the morning. People may say what they like, 
but these lakes are highly dangerous. After this 
we had a taste of wilder and more romantic 
scenery on Lugano. 

Hut this is already mutter of retrospect. And 
now here is the Switzcr's noblest water, the glassy 
lake of the four cantons : far away in the back- 
ground towers St. Gothard — " wo die ew'gen Seen 
sind : " nearer are sunny hamlets, and green slopes 
belted with copsewood, and the quaint spires of 


Lucerne mirrored in the wave — but Italy, fair 
Italy, can never be forgotten — 

u Her face it is the fairest that e'er the sun shone on ! " 

Its memory lingers even now like the fascina- 
tion of a dream, and claims the last farewell. 

Farewell ! thou beautiful Italy ! favoured land, 
highly-gifted people — " Longum, longumque vale ! " 


Note (a). 

It has been pointed out to me that the Wourali poison, brought 
over by Mr. Waterton, has now for many years been waiting to 
be tried in a similar case. I was not aware of this, or else had 
forgotten it ; but I earnestly trust such experiment will never 
be made in England. Some other remedy for this tremendous 
evil may yet be brought to light by the mercy of God. 

The following was transcribed in the summer of 1840, by a 
physician resident in London, from a document in the hands of 
the Austrian embassy. It appeared at that time in some of our 
English journals, but I do not know what degree of notice it 
excited : — 

"A schoolmaster, named Lnlic, residing on that boundary of 
Hungary towards Turkey where the military colonics arc 
located, having the established reputation of possessing a cure 
for hydrophobia, the Minister of War, to whose department the 
government of this territory belongs, instituted an inquiry. 
Two hydrophobic patients were placed under the care -of the 
military medical officers until they despaired of them; they were 
then intrusted to the care of the schoolmaster, and were cured. 

" A liberal gratification being given to this person, he is to 
receive adequate rewards if, after two years* exercise of his 


remedy under medical surveillance, his discovery is proved to 
be of sterling value. 

" The root of which M. Lalie has recognised the efficacy is 
the gentiana cruciata. It is an abundant natural product. 

" Treatment in the earliest Stage of the Disease. — 
When the first symptoms arise the mouth must be examined, and 
beneath the tongue the venae raninae or sublingual veins will be 
found turgesccnt. This turgcsccnco is at first confined to the 
neighbourhood of the fncnum, and it appears under the form of 
black spots, resembling the heads of flies ; but later, the disease 
having developed itself, the swelling affects the whole veins. 
At this period the following is the treatment to be adopted : — 
The tongue to be grasped with a wooden fork and inverted, and 
the sublingual veins to] be opened with a lancet. The tongue 
being then liberated, the bleeding roust be allowed to continue 
until it ceases of itself. Then is to be given the first dose of 
the remedy : — 

" Three quarters of an ounce (1£ loth) of the gentiana cruciata 
are to be given as a maximum dose ; the root being first pounded, 
and then macerated in water, so as to form a thin paste ; this 
must be repeated every morning for nine days. At the same 
time the wound is to be treated in the following way : — When 
fresh it is to be washed with spirit of rosemary, and then a 
poultice is to be applied, composed of two portions of rye flour 
and one of juniper berries, mixed with the strongest spirit of 
wine, to form into a paste. If the wound is closed, it must be 
opened and scarified. 

"Treatment in advanced Stages of tiie Disease. — 
When the disease has already reached its most violent paroxysms, 
the patient being properly secured, one ounce of the root is to be 
administered, and to do this, a strait jacket being put on the 
patient, two strong men must be employed to overcome his re- 
sistance ; his mouth must be opened with two wooden wedges, 
the nasal air passage being hermetically closed until he has 

NOTES. 303 

" If after three hours the patient's paroxysms continue to 
recur, an entire root must be introduced into the mouth, and 
there secured until bitten away and dissolved. The sublingual 
veins are to be opened at the first lucid interval, and after the 
bleeding a little broth may be administered. After this, the 
patients in general take water without opposition, and fall into 
a gentle slumber for eight or ten hours, and are cured. During 
sleep mucus is secreted in the mouth of the consistency of the 
white of an egg, of a slightly yellow colour ; it is very adhesive, 
and is only ejected with difficulty. * * * It is important the 
patients should be made to throw up this phlegm. This secretion 
characterises the first three days of the malady, and great care 
must be taken to remove it, principally before the remedy is ad- 
ministered. * * * 

" When the bleeding has not been sufficient, it may be re- 
sorted to again after five days, in violent attacks, and the decoc- 
tion given when slight relapse has shown itself after nine days : 
and an aperient after three days' interval is to be resorted to." 
* * * The above is a greatly abridged transcript of a very cir- 
cumstantial document. I must repeat, however incompetent the 
remedial resources may appear, they may prove effective. The 
most powerful remedies have not been discovered by savans, and 
the most valuable of our specifics is due to an Indian, who in a 
paroxysm of ague chanced to slake his thirst in a stagnant pool, 
in which lay the branches of the cinchona tree, another bitter, 
though differing so much from the gentians. I remain, Sir, 
your obedient servant, 

41. King Street, Argyll Place, June, 1840. 

Note (b). 

Since perusing Fossombroni's tract on the subject of the 
" Draining of the Chiana Valley," in connection with his appli- 
cation of the " colmata " system to the same tract of country, 


I have felt so much interested in the local experiments and 
philosophical proofs there brought forward, that I cannot think 
the reader will object to rather a long note on the subject ; I 
extract it almost entirely from the heads of paragraphs in the 
said tract. 

There is good reason to believe that the river Arno an- 
ciently ran into the Tiber by a branch called the Clanis, 
traversing what is now the Val di Chiana : when this commu- 
nication with the Tiber was lost, the district deprived of it 
came into a miserable condition. 

It would seem that from the thirteenth to the nineteenth 
century the above order has been reversed: the Clanis has 
changed the direction of its course, and has furnished a tributary 
to the Arno. In the lapse of ages this change^ has produced 
serious results. In the year 1789, Count Fossombroni laid 
before the Grand Duke a digested plan for operating on an 
entire province by the " colmata " system. He chose the Clanis 
for his. instrument, a stream which had for a long while been 
doing much injury to the Arno, by introducing into that river 
heavy pebbles, and a mass of alluvial matter, thus choking its 
channel, and raising the level of its bed ; these evils had existed 
for nearly four centuries, and it appears that during that interval 
as many as thirty-one destructive floods had prevailed at diffe- 
rent times. Fos8ombroni'8 "colmata" at once realised two 
great benefits ; it filled up the marsh with alluvial soil as the 
waters of the torrent subsided, and it afterwards carried on a 
filtered stream into the Arno. This, however, being an effect 
artificially produced, it was soon found that it needed to be 
regulated with the utmost caution. The influx into the Arno 
amounted to perhaps five times the volume of water which ran 
in before ; yet no floods ensued. So great an additional velocity 
had been communicated to the river, that its surface was not 
swollen by the additional body of water. This was in accord- 
ance with principles which Torricelli had before established by 
actual experiment ; that great man found that you may even 

NOTES. 305 

lower the level while introducing more water, if only the com- 
mon velocity be sufficiently increased; and, vice versa, that 
while drawing off some portion of a river's contents, if the 
velocity be thereby greatly diminished, the river's surface may 
swell and flood its banks. Torricelli had also proved that, in 
Order to drain the incumbent streams and pools from off a 
champaign country, it is not sufficient to give a slope to the 
channel of the canal, but that the "Campogna" itself must 
be made to assume the form of an inclined plane: thus, 
the region in question now slopes sensibly from south to north. 
Fossombroni, therefore, was obliged to regulate the speed of the 
tributary according to an exact gradation ; and this, while car- 
rying on his " colmata " operations on a grand scale. Constant 
supervision was needed, lie found that if the speed commu- 
nicated to the Arno were allowed to pass a certain point, large 
pebbles and boulders would be lifted from the bed of the river 
and carried too far down the stream. This has actually occurred 
in that port of the channel which faces Florence, and the bottom 
is there too much raised. The engineer was fain to put bar- 
riers and dykes a little higher up than the point of influx of the 
torrents, in order to limit the speed of the Arno. 

After arranging the whole system, Fossombroni said, and 
rightly, " you must now keep up this which I have set going : 
do not abandon the ' colmata,' do not remove the dykes, or 
mischief will follow : remember, this condition of things is not 
natural, but artificial." The event, as I have observed in the 
text, has proved how well he judged. 

It is evident that the " colmata," if it had been applied ages 
ago, would have preserved some noble bays which are now lost 
to Italy ; for what has been called " the retiring of the sea," is, 
in fact, a formation of stony banks and shallows, due to con- 
tinual deposits from the different torrents flowing towards the 


Note (c). 

I crave not to be misunderstood in what I have said here 
touching the number of consecrated buildings to be found in 
Rome ; nor, again, where I have used the expression " a priest- 
ridden city." This last has reference, not to the nature of the 
particular measures adopted by the Pope's government, but to 
the imiwlicy, the absurdity, of vesting all the offices of state in 
the hands of prelates and cardinals. 

As to the vast number of churches in Rome, I certainly hold 
it to be an unhealthy symptom. True, Italy was from the first 
full of bishops, because full of cities ; for wherever the emperor 
recognised a city, there the servants of Christ established God's 
altar, that prayers might be offered up. But this, a giving of 
meat in due season, was surely very different from mustering a 
crowd of gorgeous tabernacles at the palace gates of the Pope. 

Note (d). 

" Friar Tuck's hermitage." 

I beg mine host's pardon, but really his roseate hue and 
plump dimensions contrasted so with our jaded appearance, that, 
hearing no one address him by any name, I supplied the hiatus 
in my journal with the appellative which seemed most appro- 

Moreover, that he had so fattened on the fare which he set 
before us, 1 no more believe, than some one else did the story 
of the parched peas. 

Note (e). 

A friend suggests that it were better to derive " pithecusa " 
from iri0ij*o£ than from xiOoc I can only say, that nobody in 

NOTES, 307 

Ischia, gentle or simple, believes the story that " apes " were 
ever in the island, — excepting certain specimens of the chattering 
tribe, who still come in troops from Naples. 

For adhering to irtdoc meantime there is abundant reason : 
Ischia has always been famous for its clay-pits, and the manu- 
facture of the pitcher seems immemorial. Indeed a form of it 
commonly in use is as old as Egypt. 

Ovid is the authority for KtdrjKog (Metam. lib. xiv.) ; but was 
he not quizzing the Ischiote features ? 

Note (/). 

1 quote an extract from the "Etudes," but it is by me- 

" Newton avers that the earth was thrown forth complete at 
one cast. Moses has recorded that the first man was formed in 
complete manhood. So, the earth brought forth the creatures 
in full stature, and the waters 'great whales,' &c. Yet our 
geologists arc for ever dreaming of age and youth, of epochs, 
germs, and births. They assign 10,000 years to the ' form- 
ation ' of a chalk cliff, &c. 

" But Etna must have had forges formed of lavas which had 
not flowed as yet, before it could vomit fire," &c. 

I cannot vouch for this being accurately quoted ; whether 
they be St Pierre's exact words, I know not ; I know they ex- 
press my opinions. On the subject of "a chalk cliff,'' for 
instance, it appears to me that our geologists beg the question. 

Note (g). 

If it should be found that " malaria " still continues gaining 
ground in the neighbourhood of Rome, as there is reason to fear 
will be the case, why not try a simple remedy on a large scale ? 
With the help of the Albano Lake, the river Anio, and 

x 2 


Father Tiber, the Campagna might be conveniently laid under 
water, say twenty square miles at a time, and the same result 
obtained as in the valley of the Chiana. If any feel inclined 
to smile at this, let them remember that far more difficult and 
expensive measures have been proposed before now. It has 
even been gravely debated whether it would not be well to pave 
the entire Campagna ! It need hardly be observed that Foa- 
sombroni's method, if adopted, would repay all expenses a 
hundredfold, by converting an unfruitful waste into rich alluvial 
soil (see Note b\ besides fully obviating the present daily 
increasing evil of a pestilential " malaria." 

Note (A). 

The states of Italy desire freedom ; but are they fit for it ? 
Have they, indeed, profited by the history of past events ? Are 
their people in this sense arrived at years of discretion ? Could 
they safely choose for themselves, or any one of them devise a 
form of government comparable to that under which they are 
living ? Take, for instance, Tuscany, now a grand-dukedom. 
Here consolidation is strength, and dismemberment would en- 
tail weakness and dissolution. Yet Siena would fain be inde- 
pendent ; even Florence sighs after the days of the republic. 
Perhaps something might be done (hitherto unattempted) to 
better the condition of such towns as Pisa and Siena; but 
assuredly not by separation. The prosperity of Leghorn is due 
to its being a sea-port, and to the English residents within its 
walls. In Lombardy there is no lack of fair and thriving cities : 
Vicenza, Verona, Brescia, Padua — to say nothing of its capital, 
Milan : there is, indeed, a certain sluggishness in them all, and 
the energies of the people might be far more widely developed 
than they are ; but this is a mercantile, rather than a political 
question ; and probably more would be gained for any one of 
them by discovering a new process of winding silk or of 

NOTES. 309 

pressing oil, than by obtaining, as of old, each a petty ruler of 
its own. The chief resources of Venice at this day are its 
manufactories of glass and its fabric of delicate gold chains. 

If any part of Italy is to gain by a change in outward 
government, it must be the Papal States ; and yet, assuredly, 
whenever the experiment of bettering things is tried here, it 
will be attended with extreme peril. It is true that the people 
in these states are governed according to ideas incompatible 
with human progress or the business of daily life, and that 
their polity is maintained in existence by other surrounding 
powers : but this has long been so ; and Rome has probably 
varied less, taking it all in all, than any other capital in Europe 
during some centuries past. But the day of its attempted im- 
provement may be the day of its utter dissolution ; for questions 
grave and practical, which have long lain dormant, will then be 
mooted, and of this none can foresee the issue. 


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ittfettllRiKotitf ana General ftfteratutt, 





Agriculture and liurai A fairs, 

nnvMnti On tlluinff F>fttl t Ife * § 
Hr„ Y '« Eaaay on Agrieolttrt, *o. - * 
Crocfctr'a Und-flawiir.|| - * 3 
Oivv'f AgrlcallofiilChrmiatry 

iisimwn'i Ftmvra Eneyrinr* 

Loudon's EnC* clop, of Agriculture 

Mhp^I Farmera Bw jiji i ij i l Jj 
Enejelop.of Ag 
Lady'e Country Compan- 
mrnl* of Ag ricultur* 

■■ on uw nflirt«tti 

Parnell On Rnad* - 

Tlminwn On, Fallrrtlrw Citlle • 
TrtpTmm'i AgrteuUuralChemLitry 
Whitley '■ AgriwlturnJ Geology * 

Art 9 and ManufaetuTBt* 

FlnnaVa Dlcffenary ofSoltnoefAo- 
Buckler*' H, Alhan'n Abb*y 
Badje'eMiner'aGuMe * 
Cartoon* (The PrtM) - • 

Creay'a Cl>U Engineering - 
Oe Bnrtln Ob Plot 

DrfwI^n Gallery 

OwllH ttneyelon of Architecture 
1 \», inn On Falntin*; And Deain * 
HullMiA'P Manufacture* In Melai - 
SSflAl Fhot*™hy . - 
LnoJftn'a EneyH.or Rqnl AreMtent, 18 
Minrlrv '■ Fnffin'-erlnK A Archllact, 23 
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1" ** |'r,rcet*ta&t)lua 34 

Hilfl(Or,>OnffntHitSn(l - - S3 
<nnm En K lnP , » J thi A rti»Ml Cidb t 
Uft. i Rklinh*ry nfArtP.fto, - 81 

WiikinnjfliKiiiriBEiBfwtr- * 91 
Wood On RalUoida » * * ■ 


AlklBtlAftftfAfldlMM- - - 3 
Bell'i Eminent Brlt^h Poeta - 4 

Dorcr'i Life of thr King or frunl* 

I Earlf British Writer* - 

lMs**t BiiUihDrtma.tMUi 

Foreler'* flinte-mien - - * *§§ 

fReT.C.lUreufBp.Jebh 10 

i'lisTi M s I Ltn r-y Comm UHrt 10 

Glelg'eBrilith Military C 

Gnnt'i Mrmplr A Corre*|KirtAeivoa 

Jimei'i Life of the Black Frlne* - 

» Foreign 8t*l**men *■ 
LtiUe'i Life of Con«t*hle - 
Mecklntmhl Life orfltr T. More - 
Maunder'* Biographical Treasury - 
Maury'e StALrmrrt'Cn of Amerlc*. <■ 
Mobim iJil'a HoliBTnmpd 
llait^r'i H'canf Brtltah Lawyet*- 
Rupaull'k Bedford Correepon dene* 
Shelleyi Literary Men nl Italy, *£- 

" y>rt of French Wrttej 

Boa that'* Lire* nf th* Arlrnlrale 

" LirftorWMley * - m 

To*rnf*nd'i Eminent Judge* - 90 

W*t* rtona Autobiography A Eauy* S3 

rMb ftf Gtfftfrtti C/iiiity 

Anton** Oakery • I 

Mack a Treatl-* fin Brewing - • 4 

■ ffmnplemr nt nn BftvtriLn Iw«t * 
Cntk^m'i bald* (Tni) - - # 
UonoTftB'i IlnMntle Ecopomjr - » 
lUnd boat orTMtt - It 
HkBta an Ettqu* tte - - - 19 
Undiofl'i P*p*Bt'i Hand -bMk - 14 

" EM«mtdT'p CioMe - - 14 

" Ob Mnklot ^Bl< * - ll 

London 1 ! Fj*U ln»lnietloB - - It 

■ LMf* Conip*nlo*r - 11 
" Ammlnr Gu^carf 17 

Mtnnder'i Trt**«rT or KBOwleflipe W 
■* BU>KT»pl]Le*:t Trt*»ary - 90 

* Briff Bt, and 1 ,11- Tn*irUf f *t 

" TrrHMttT or T I iatof y - *i 

rarima'R l>m>r#^ flutk>* - - H 

► 'T4 ml ri. I II.-T 1 I KHfc-ll-fl riFfldtBJl ?1 

R*ftrVrNTimp.TililM - M 

niddlrt L«tiB~gnf. DLetiOfl*rlw So 
RoM naon'aA rtnf Curi na: ,Plck t J Bg **. W 

Ito^ton'a IJchtler * Iffl 

Bbort Wlikt ----- 21 

Tbomton On Iha Slfk Rnora * * & 

Thhnunn'e iBt^rCH TaLlea - - K» 

Tomlini 1 * Uw DktSoBary - - 30 

W B ]krr'i DkUoBarLm, by &miu1 * 31 

WolrtKr* Dunwitin Economy * *3 

B >tan if and Gardening* 

Aberemmbbii Pr»ttle»l Gtrfe ner * 

" andMavtn'iGrird<-Ti' , r r iComp, * 

CmlkotVi BcTipttlfr' HffbaJ - - * 

Cdnwrnition* on BoLan j * - 1 

Druminonil'i FLrat Step* to BoUoy J 

Hrrnln*"a Bntahjf - - - - JJ 

H»irt On f?ulU**«on nfth* VIm - IS 

« OBth^RooUorVlnat - IS 

Fr^Veri Brtllah Flnni - - * 13 

JankPOBP Plctorla.1 Htm - - 14 

Unttlf it Thewy or Hnrtlenltor* - IT 

•* ' Orch»rf*«lkh«BG*p4«l 17 

" iBtradtroiioB lo Betonj - Ifl 

*' FVor* Medic* - - ' 1» 

* dynnpaia of BHUah Flort IT 
Loudon'* Hortoa Britannlcn* - 13 

" " Llgnoiia I^oodbieniia 18 

■ Amtbidr aardenet - 17 

" Belf-Iintmrtkin * - 17 

" Thh and Bhmba - * 17 

** Gnrnenlnf * IT 

" HftBta -..- IT 

" SuhLirbaa GahlflBef * IB 

Reptnn»a 7 ABdatmp* Gardening • u 

Ili^eri • Roae Amnteur'a Onida - S3 

Roberta Ob the Grpi of -Vine * - 38 

Rofcrrit Ventahlo Pultintof - S3 

Brhlelden'a Sclent (It BntABy ' *3 

HaiKh* TBtrodutftlfWi to Balmy - 37 

" Knfli^h Flim - - BT 

" Compendium nf En*. Flora 37 

Specirarn Flora of BriUab DoUn y - 10 


Blair'i Chf OBoloalcnl Tahlei - 4 

NicoWiChroBolufyof HislorJ - II 

Rlddlfrt Ecdeiltatif al Chronology 18 

Tfct*'* HoratJii* RertltutuB - - If 

Chmmerce fif Mercantile Affa tt% 

BaTtia'AHtbmetlfiflfAnnBRita - 4 
OifbartOnBiBklnjr ■ - * " 

n«ii<l*t-i Tim* T*W« ; . - - ^ 

Stepl ■ STilpmiwtor'f A#iliUnt ■ » 

Hymnttd 'a M ereh Jnl-SeAmtn'a L*w 29 

TliOniaon'B I Btrr«at Tablet - - W 

WfciroTdaUu^Jimi' LatM * - 31 

Geography and Atluiei. 

* 'xilMofkWrnfiMfrtfiliy 8 

ABcient do, 

Coolpy'l TTnrld •Jnn'aycd - - 



FwnLfraHlpt, OrOgranhT of Artbl* 10 
II ^1* Tatip' G f neral A tf *• - - 11 
M^CnBocL^Oen^TBphlpat^nctlonary 10 




M'UotTi SicrnTaeoB-rapby - • 
Mumy'i Encyrtop. of Gi*graphy 
Ordnance Mapa, Ac. ".-"-' 
Parrot a Atoent of Mount Ararat 

//fttffrj!/ and Critic*. 

1 Adalrt Mlaaion to Vle»n* - - 
,* " ConaUntlBopbi 

BarreR'a RlW* CeltlcilMI! - 
B*|J> HUtory or Ra-»ia _- - 
Blair aChroB. And Hialor.Tablea - 
niAomflfM* F/litltm nt TbwydLdfi 
*' Trtn-l:ninn 

Cnwe't lflatoryof Franoa 7 
D* &ltmOBdi'a Fall of Roman Empire G 

lUlian Repttblica - « 

OtiBham'* Spain and rottOf ll -> • 

Middle Ajw - - I 

" , German Fmpirci * - f/ 

** Denmark, BmdeB, As. f 

Fotond * - - t 

Punlftp'a Hillary of Fiction - - fl 

EMlrntnn'p EBSjINh Anll«)iiitiei - • 

FtrffOi't Rnltod Staiea - - IB 

Q rant'a Memoir A Cnrre*pOU4«nc« 1 1 

QratLana rfetberUnde - - - U 

Grifttblot'* Win, m. A Lonle XTf . 1 1 

Oalecl ard Ini't II ietoriol Mai (tin - 1 1 

tt*lal*d'» Hfr or Richard <». 11 

IWydnn Or, PalBtiBjr and Deilfn - H 

HitlnrlDal Pictt. of tbi M Idd k Aftl 1 1 

" Chartdefl - - - 13 

llofplej'* (Bp.| DiMleal Critteiam * 11 

Jt<Tn!y*(Lord)ContribatlnnB - ll 

K Hfl h Il*f a Oatli nei o f f 1 ittory - 13 

LaLng'i KiBnnf Norway - - 13 

Irfrnprlcre-'a Cla*iic-"i.l Dictionary - 13 

Mi^oUj'i Cdt- and. Iliat, Ei^aya 13 

Mack in nona R Litnry nf CtrRiaatf on 19 

Mackln lotba Ml wetlaneooj Wot kt 19 

" RiiloryDfRniHimd - 1> 

MTuH^h-BGeoftraphiealOktionttry 19 

MnuBder'v Trananry of Klilory - 30 

Manry'a ^Uteemam of Aratrtca - » » 

Milorr* Chureb Hlatory - - 31 

Monroe % I letnri of Ireland - - 9S 

MonLwlTn'i Rerjlniiutlcal TRalnry 99 

Mb-rilnn'tChrnnoEoify of Hli*(ofj - S3 

Ttinke« T li>tofyofUi«RerornUtlon 33 

Rnsne, 1tlat*fyof - P 

nonclli Bedford Coirpipnodewsi 4 

tkhoi»nhaoer r t Antohl0|rrjipb J * 34 

Seott'i lHptnryof8fOtlttBd - S3 

BlnBetti By win of Riatorf * - 97 

Ste L>bln8 * H ittory or the Chart!* - 38 

HErtory of RrfonnaUoD X8 

Chnrtb RLttof) - 38 

flwltierlaod.lliitoryof - - - SO 

Btdhey Bmlth-aWnrka - - 33 

thl rl wnlli 1 1 Latorr Of Grtrite* * » 

Tnoke'a lllitory of Priue - - SO 

Turner^ Hi" tnty of Enltland - 31 

Tyllef 'a Oen«af Hiatory - 91 

Zdmpt'a Latin Grammar - - 33 

Jttvenite Bath. 

Amy itetbert ----- I 

Boy'i own Bonk (Th*) - 3 

Garlmde - - * * 10 

1 1 «*i*|-i Tain of the lodline - ]1 

1 1 nwltt'a ' w m , ;. Rnf* Country Book 1 1 

fjincfn Pamoui|B> > ■ 13 
Marul'a CoBTrftaUoai -*■ 

On the Htetory or England - S3 

On Chemui'jT - ♦ -19 

Ob Ratnnl Pfcilaaanhy - - 13 

Oo Folltical Economy - 13 

Oh Vegetahl* Phrelologf - It 

Ufa Land and Wat«r - » SO 

On LntiKuajie - - - - 90 

Mtrgant Perciral - - - * 30 

Mairyal-aMiinu-rmMi Ready - * SO 

* Mbnton - - . - 90 

« BettLcra in Tanad* - 90 

•* rriratMsn man - - 90 

My Tooth rfal Compjini'-nl - - SO 

IVrnfi'aiR**«fcUBt 34 


flolll Hint* to Mnthnrt - 

M anacemen t or ChlldfrB 

Copland 'a Oictlnii*ry of H«Rcfc 
ElliotaoB'a Rntnan fliypiolwy 
Eadaile'a Mtameriam Ln India 

Hnll-B da Medical Bloto* - 1 

t^aoe On the Water Cora - - 1 1 

[■arplr* tin FooH and Dirt - . ■ S3 

Rrrne-a Medkeat G«ld# - 33 

ftqQdby On Mefno^ri*tin - - 33 

— =-- On F«™S , . . art 

M; jcftfiiii£0uj. r*it«. 

Brar* FWkwwfcj of tf rc**eity 

■* ftttleL IjalciM - 
Carlooaa (Tltt PfU*) - - 
CUfifi'i Feratt Life 
Cocka'i Bonfe*4* p H* Wlnae, At, 
Collegia** Quid* ;TN) 


Ow y«ii Ott Frobabklltle* 
De SlxieWia New South WiUi 
Ikead.a Gall*rj - 

Owt-i &*ok of M*lu» 

Gfahjma Eaftiafc - 
GfA&L'a Lt Iter* fro» 
GuHl't wMMhi 
Hand book nfTeit* 

Hobbca (Tbn-l.'WMki or ■ 
Ho«iu* Hutu J I.ifr of Enftlk4 
m vtniteto mmAUIimi 

*■ Slurirtlt l,lf« .if LirrmtOJ 

i* Bacui Lib of Germany - 

** Oakmiwti^ & ciw utimitr 
JMHl*clt Q» Co*** Opminii 
Jeffreya (Lord) Contribution* • 
Kin** Antefttlr* Republic . 
' ^T- I Jfc &l Lb. Wttv^n 

ftdf> Cwatr r Cumn. - 
Crii,*nd IlkaLEmn 

Maltland* l3.»rch la lb* ^UwmU 
UkhelcO Tha FtoptB - - - 
Howe On lb* Vet of th* Body 

■i u ftmji n d j hoJjr • mm 

KkIv Dt Sauaeura On UuciUot 23 
Pet** Plymlcj 1 * Latler* - * 14 

FlunUlt Ob the BrLlwh Na*y - 24 
PtctoA* Cmiw of Bag. Heading U 

Howl on* ftcbalfr 
SandfWd* Clmrth, School, ft Pariah So 
SfiRtnli N * imu>* of lii* Shipwivc-kZB 
SniiuriiJLtr.S/iinty) WorU - » 
soulbvir't Common place Book - 23 
The Hotter, ft* - - M 
Thomaow On food - 3*0 

Twelve Ydin Abu - * 31 

Welker'alh-aSludlM- - • 31 
Wi|h»u*;*(L*d)) Ill*rj - * N 
Zuupta Lrtiu Unmmat - - « 

jYafurai Ilutcny* 
Citkjw'i Popular Coaehulogy 
noublcday* UuLurAit-k an. I KhUp 
Orunnngnil"* Lettere to a NeturJjUrt 
Om'i MolluaGoua Animal* - 
■' uul UiLchetl* Ornithology * 

Kir by and Sptncta Eniouiolugy * 
l<a*a Tnaiuennf - 
" Ele.neiiU or Natural Hialory 

Tailderoy 3* 

Slid* tL« ■ - I 

Animals lo Hiiiwllf- 32 

tblaTls* - ■ 

Zoology of tha Eng Poete 
Htobn^ Briflifa CotoOf4»rm 
IhifflMi On BUbl J Of 14 aUiral Hi»L 

Fiah, Amphibia, 1 

MikwtofT - - * 3* 

" Habit* and In*Uncti - 20 

Tafiva"»Shell*tiflbff!rJUilili1»jiiJi 31 
Walertnaa Eih^i on Nitum! Hurt. 33 
Weatwootla CluaiQeAlion of 1ju«Ij 33 
Koolugj of H W SS. £nbu u«l Tanot 3ft 

BrijV(Mrt,}NorcU - - - 

Ountop'i Hiitorj uf FU*tau - 

Fiwn or Strloniu - 10 

UarrTatiUutinnattRcd;- - 20 

« Fti«U 
Virkki, ■ Tal« of A.tbasa - 
KuuthiE ri Tbif Doctor, ftc. - 
WUlua lH. P^ Diilui At Lilt 

llfeL CycittpediasdrDkiU 

llruulc'B SciraCB^Lltarftture.ftArt 

Copl*ou"i Dicuoairr oTH«Lklaa 

OftT'i Cirtl EuginecrUiit 

Q*tU> ArcMUcWe 

JolmuD'i F^rmer'i EaejOopltdilt 

Ijiiuj^u'* A^rlculUu-B 

11 liujul Architecture 
Jf GurJuQiug " * 
* Plant! - 

•* Tmiudtthmb* - 

^'CulLixJl'«Grc*r*j>bl<:4ilD«£lloriJlrr 10 

" DicLioiurjrof Commtn* ID 


Munay* Euercl».«f Oeofr*pbj - 33 
U nr 1 ! HI. U.**rj a A rta , *«, - - 31 
Wifagtrr ft Pule« k * IhHD. EcMMtBf 33 

Poetry and the Drama. 

AillnaiDT.lBrktiftht'twU - 
Priif'i Ufnan ■» » 

(.b^lrnot '■ Walter CrmJ 1 
Hirt Roiliu^he llailaJi^ 
Ccv.Ullo' * Peraiao Bom UanivA - 
aoLitWirUl'f Focma - 

Ortfa Kbg;, I3tuflilaal#d - - 
Gtttcb'i Ro&ft If 9>k| Btilada 

IIo*rltta AtlUdi - 
L. E. h* [\*UC*I Warbi * 
I,JnwrKHi"» AntluQlo«bi OionWntbji 
Utcmmlrj'm !-■!■ ur Aucient [UK»i IS 

klQntiomcrr 1 - Pc«Ue-J W W k« 
MMrr'i PMtkjd Wori» 
" LalUHookb - 

" Wci^Jk* - - 

Mural of Plowtri ■ * 

Foci*" pHiaaaufe** * 

Foim % Workaj L j RaKOfl * 

Hffaard lb* Fua - * • 
SoikipaaK. *j BBwatar 

^oplu^bai, by Lin wood . 
BuUtl^yi i'« Ileal Work! 
" Hritiab Foati - 

(tnlrLtoTtiki Woodi 
TiMtfiuon'i Scaaooa 
VTiilUa Lynti of tbi Hwtrt 

■ 31 

* XI 

- 31 

* II 

- 13 

* 34 

* U 

* *a 

- 17 

* 31 

P*>f i ( ieat Economy Jf Stutivf ten. 

Qllbarton BuMnff ... )0 

ll'Cullocb a Oeoc . SUtiiL ft* Diet. 1 1 

" DkUOaa rt of CcusMBiW 13 

Political Acohomj - 19 

" fLiU.ticitfGl. Bnmb 1ft 

" OnKundintr & Tiiittivn 13 

If Ifrti'i Cunrcraa . On FulU . Eton. 13 

MfbUnc 0cnrr*r> HepOrta - 33 

Swru3i).i» MrrtU^nt fifjiwn'i [*•» 23 

llt^mlcn On flkVfMpjmtfM - *0 

Tookita IJiaLur) of 1'ncta - - 3L> 

Udigiaui and Mural Wvrh. 

Amy rlarbcrt - 

liarrrll a Old Tcatnmcnl CrlUdmu 

Ulo-jUiJitiid h » Gittk i'eaflanitnt 

CollEfe and ttcbool do. 

Durdar't Orirntal f-iulomi - 
Buraa'a CliriaUan PUfo4apfa]r 
" *■ FrapaimU 

CaJkott'a Sciiptara lUrbtl * - 
Coupcr'j Sermon* » * 

Dab;'* l>gn>aaU« Liturgy 
IMb.lnL'. £i un .laj Librarf 
Dotldr ytft'i Fajnil j ^^rnaltor - 
Twgmilliiaii'a Gvnk Loncordaaoa 
H tin ' " J i mmi'i I iv b. * t :J i ajj , Coocotd , 
Ktfiarldga'a Sjrian Charcbaa 
fiUroj'a EhrlplujaJ OoDTcrutlaaj 
Farnter'a lliat, Otonnpliyor Ar*LU 

Prom Oirurd tu Kofio* • 
Qa*eoraa On to* ApucaJypaa * 

Hflok'ii Dr.)L#otumonFaaiiaD.Wwk 
riomt* IbtroducOan 10 Sen ptnnn 

" Abridgment of iilte 
H<utleyaiBp.T Biblk*lCrillcuim . 

» * PHlma - - - 
/ebba (Dp) Corrpipynd . with Kno« 

» *' Traaa ^flL* PaaJmi - 

Kip'# OIlUMl in Home 
Knut'l I Aleaaodetli Remain! 
Lakntr'* NuU'i wQ KvO^J** S^liUm - 
L«nctDn ParaouiKa 
UtUrl to Uj Uhruuwii Frlenda - 
Mmtubiid'n Oimrdj is toe Cftl*comba 
Miuj(ii™tP*rtUj! - 
MLtbclct-tPrLenU, Worotn^St Furnliu: 

'■ aad Qulnrf'i J»ull* 
Uilcer'a Clinrcli tliator f 
M'L«04]'i Sacred Uvu^rapby - - 19 
Moon On tbo Uh urtha Body - 23 

Ifnabelma Eccleeiutical Hiatory - 23 

Ht Youthful Corn paiilon* - \- 22 

Parabkft of Oar Lwd - B 

Parkea'a Donieatia DuU« . ► 23 

Pcirmn'a Prafara - - 23 

Peter FljrnJeyt Letters. - - 24 

Pitmui'i Hcrmona on lb* Faalma - 24 

Qulndt J a€briBtloinJty - U 

Rlddl«a UrJttlB from ft Oodlatber- 2$ 

D i4>iford'*F4imgl.ialb> - - * 2ft 

" Feuh>kt ImiMroreintul - 20 

'* On Woman - - 2ft 

iHHfl tlJ* HouatjTh*) - - 28 

Shvoberd'fr Hon AjKfktolient - 21 

smiaiBCa.H'filouaTimca- - 27 
" " n«Ji v LuiigfAN«, FJrtt*ln21 

Bmltha Vernal* DUp Lpla 

ifauUtej'b Life it W»i»lry', (Wit lli-turf 

Tab* 3 * JlitUvy of St. Paul 

■r*j ! * r ■ » r ... i a'm , ■ 

LadfMaxy * * - 
Hargarrt i S* v Uta Fear! * 

T*yl*fl(Ue,Ja™a»y) Work* - 3* 
THBliBi'i Introduction I* lb* Bible 3d 
Tre*nr ■*••*"•■ 
Tr«Uo[v* 4n*lc4;ta Tb*ol«Wm - 31 
furnfraSacnt] ttiatory. - . &\ 
Twatv* Yaar* A» - - - 31 

Wanlia^* Hoc Ldi*b Coo |nrt*r«r - 31 
W.I la Bible, k»ria, aad T.bnnd 31 
W i L I .r rfo r L Va V ir • o r ( *l i n.tiM r. it t 32 
Wililupmi'iCalMh. umiuxtb nut. 33 
WiilouitMrr a (L&dyr ULarf - - » 
Woodw*nt f i B*nwin*, Ewfi p |t, H a 

Htiral Sporli, 

Blalav'i EHeUonui of Boom * 4 
Kpbamera ob Aaeiin* 3 

Vf aourd'i FiWiin* InVafaa - ]1 

1 1 a wkr rt 1 nitructlon* to Sportsmen It 
Ixiii.ltiic 1 * l^dj'aC'ountrj Corup, * Jl 
SUlU Talk And labia Tall • » *H 

'/V(«i Seieneannd Mathtmatfci. 

Bakawalla IntroducUnn to Geology 4 

BllmiioaLaaeona oo Qlmniaitrj - ft 

B r.nJv i Dictionary of Science, ft*. 

Brtwiferi Optica ... I 

Goatenatton* on UineraloKy - 1 

rmtfl Ctrll Etifuieerir^ \ . 7 
IWUBechaiarolofjorf^niirallrftc B 

DonoTan'a Cbemiauy 8 

Faray On Uh Steam E»r>a - 

Pi-broka Ok th* Aaaiaot irU, ftc 10 

Ou.**r1 SuientiOc FWnoraena - 10 

drireaer On ti* 0*n - 1] 

J E l- L ^ l.« L '» Nalur&l 1 'hllnaopb J - 12 

** AMtronam* - - - 13 

llnliand'i Muiiuht Luna la tfetaj - 12 

HumlMjldfa Oft— - 14 

nonta llrm^nlnn an r.i^kl - * 14 

Kjb^r and Uniwi'iUicliiinlc* - 1A 

laFlBcvtKjiuimortba WurW a Ifl 

La rdni^a Cabinet CiiitatMBitla . ]ft 
" HrlrualatieaftPiuiumBljcalO 

" Ond Wnlter'a Electricity 18 

** Aritlametk - 18 

• Geocaelry - - * )« 

« TrvatiH 0* Keat - * Lfl 

T^reboun on Fbotoujrmpliy - - IB 

Lqw'i Cltemiitrr - - - - IB 
Marceta ( M n . } Coo vermatlona 10-20 

ML-m^irf of ti*v UeoWical Sumy 20 

Uoarlcy* Pr^ct-cal Jdcchanlca - 02 

" Ka|fim«frLng&ArchLUctura 22 

Nealiil'a alenauratloq - - - 23 

On en a L*ctu»a on Corap. Analoany 23 

Peanon'a Fr*cticaJ AatroniHn.i' - 23 

F.- k -:b«l'f ElamnttftOf FIljalE* - 24 

FLU LijVi . of Com a-nU, Ac. 24 
Oaida Lu (JaoJqfy - -21 


i fitiolof y . 
on Untofj 


PowaUa Na1 
QuarLecly Journal 4 r 
Ritchl* tiu KailwayB 

Qbartcf I j Juurn.l if iha OeoL S 

Topfaam'a Ag-ricuUural CSieradaUy 30 
Wbillaj m AffHcoltural Ocnlofy - 22 


AUan^ utmmmm - - - 

Cooley 1 * World Snrrejad 
CwtotU"! [ H In) Norlb Wll«t * 
Dt Cwtiata Itunia ... 
DC Stneleckia Mew South W*l*a - 
Ermana Trarela tfarouab Siberia - 
rlarTbj'iniKhluodiuf^tLlppUb - 
Kittg't AnrtnliDa Republic - 
Kip • Holydap In Roro* 
Lalng'a Tour In Nm 
Mackaj'i £n*llab Lake* 
Montaubaa'i Travel* In tftC Eatt - 
PbitoPb AKcntot Uouat Ararat 
Patou'eCA, AjSorria - - - 22 
- ■■ Modem Syrians - 2* 

Fedeatrlan Reminiicenoea - * 23 
Srbcpcnbaucra Plctnnu of TraY*l 2fl 
Seaward a Narrttlva - . 28 

TLa?hrndo;r>a TntveU tn tijc Ea*(. 30 
Ton Orlicbi Travel* iu India - 01 

Vtitrimry Medicine, S(e. 

H lie* On the Horae'i Poot - - 21 

Stable Talk and Table Talk - 2B 

Tbomaoo On la ttt.-ihinc Cattle - 3€ 

Turner On lha Foot oftJie Hon* IL 

Wlftt« On tha Huh . n 

New Works and New Editions 


Messrs. Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 



And Improved System of Modern Horticulture, Alphabetically arranged. 4th Edition, with 
Introductory Treatise on Vegetable Physiology, and Plates, by W. Salisbury. lxmo. 6s. bds. 


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m _ -q)op -po -n 'OUI81 'woniPHAiaM 'ioq)nvaq) 

jo jmnaw p»!qdajJoie « q)!M. 'tt'O 'mow vaj an v*ag a)«i aq) Aq pajwgoo 'xaaAA aq) 
u| Aid AJdAa jo Sa}tiaAg pui JuituoH aq) jo; uuoj aApuaqajdinoo )nq jjoqs i jo Juptpuoo 

: SaillHYi HOI SHSHYHd-'ilOSUYadl 

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•q)op *tf>i *poo aa ao aaop«j)gnni Of I Afjvaa q)|Ai *oas *xapai pui Xjittoio 
q)!AA wAto jo8w;ojj Xq pasjAai pui *sonw <jadooo a)|qM ui«(h|aa Aq uajpn sa)OM 
uiojj *aSauoo aq) o) joasajoia uijj^uuh '8'H'i 'nmmo an v hdijj Xg *Kt«l u| tuoa&tng ;o 
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imoxymy aAixYHYdwoo aHX. mo sauiixoai - -Ma^o 


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